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(1/133) Increased extracellular local levels of estradiol in normal breast in vivo during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

Estrogen exposure is a major risk factor for breast cancer. Tissue estrogen originates from the ovaries but a significant portion is also produced by enzyme activity locally in the breast itself. How these enzymes are regulated is not fully understood. The extracellular space, where the metabolic exchange and cell interactions take place, reflects the environment that surrounds the epithelium but there has been no previous study of hormone concentrations in this compartment. In the present study microdialysis was used to measure extracellular estrogen concentrations in breast tissue and abdominal subcutaneous fat in 12 healthy women in vivo. It was found that women with high plasma progesterone levels had significant increased levels of estradiol in breast tissue compared with fat tissue (breast tissue 168+/-6 pM; subcutaneous fat, 154+/-5 pM; P<0.05), whereas women with low plasma progesterone exhibited no difference. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between local breast tissue estradiol and plasma progesterone levels (r=0.709, P<0.01). There was no difference in estrone sulphate in breast and fat tissue regardless of progesterone levels. Estrone was not detectable. The results in this study suggest that progesterone may be one regulator in the local conversion of estrogen precursors into potent estradiol in normal breast tissue.  (+info)

(2/133) Development of adiposity in adolescence: five year longitudinal study of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of young people in Britain.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the developmental trajectory of obesity in adolescence in relation to sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. DESIGN: Five year longitudinal cohort study of a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of school students aged 11-12 years at baseline. SETTING: 36 London schools recruited to the study in 1999 by a stratified random sampling procedure. PARTICIPANTS: 5863 students participated in one or more years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight, height, and waist circumference measured annually by trained researchers; overweight and obesity defined according to International Obesity Task Force criteria; adiposity and central adiposity indexed by body mass index (BMI) and waist standard deviation scores relative to 1990 British reference values. RESULTS: In school year 7 (age 11-12), the prevalence of overweight and obesity combined was almost 25%, with higher rates in girls (29%) and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds (31%) and the highest rates in black girls (38%). Prevalence of obesity increased over the five years of the study at the expense of overweight, but no reduction occurred in the proportion of students with BMIs in the healthy range. Waist circumferences were high compared with 1990 norms at age 11 (by 0.79 SD in boys and by 1.15 SD in girls) and increased further over time. Both BMI and waist circumference tracked strongly over the five years. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was high in London school students, with significant socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities. Little evidence was found of new cases of overweight or obesity emerging over adolescence, but few obese or overweight adolescents reduced to a healthy weight. The results indicate that persistent obesity is established before age 11 and highlight the need to target efforts to prevent obesity in the early years.  (+info)

(3/133) Prevalence of amyloid deposition in long standing rheumatoid arthritis in Iranian patients by abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsy and assessment of clinical and laboratory characteristics.

BACKGROUND: The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of secondary amyloidosis in a group of Iranian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), and the assessment of its correlation with the clinical and laboratory findings and data. METHOD: A total number of 220 patients (167 female and 53 male) with a minimum five-year history of RA were selected. Congo red staining method was used for staining the specimens obtained by abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsy (ASFB) method. All of the specimens were examined for apple-green birefringence under polarized light microscope. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients were assessed. Chi-square test and unpaired student's t-test were run for intergroup comparisons. RESULTS: Amyloid deposition test yielded positive results in 15 out of the 220 cases (6.8%) examined by the ASFB technique. Thirteen patients were found to have minimal amyloid deposits. Of all the clinically significant cases, 8 (53%) presented with proteinuria, and 7 cases (46.6%) had severe constipation. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of fat amyloid deposits in Iranian patients with RA is low. In up to half of the study group the deposits were subclinical. Follow up studies are required to determine whether this subclinical amyloidosis can develop into full-blown clinically significant amyloidosis.  (+info)

(4/133) Diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and its utility in clinical practice.

OBJECTIVE: Aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat is a simple and fast method for detecting systemic amyloidosis; however, the sensitivity of this approach remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and the utility of this method in clinical practice. METHODS: All consecutive patients with established and suspected systemic amyloidosis who attended our tertiary referral hospital between 1994 and 2004 underwent aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat. Congo red-stained tissue was assessed quickly in a single smear in a routine manner by a single observer, and was also assessed thoroughly in 3 smears by 2 independent observers. RESULTS: One hundred twenty patients with established systemic amyloidosis were studied (38 with AA amyloidosis, 70 with AL amyloidosis, and 12 with ATTR amyloidosis). Routine (quick) assessment was associated with a sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 72-87%). Sensitivity increased to 93% (95% CI 87-97%) when 3 smears were thoroughly examined. The specificity of fat aspiration in 45 control subjects was 100% (95% CI 92-100%). One hundred sixty-two patients for whom there was a clinical suspicion of systemic amyloidosis were screened for amyloidosis by fat tissue aspiration and biopsy of at least 1 other tissue. In 69 (43%) of these 162 patients, a diagnosis of amyloidosis was established, and in 66 (96%) of these patients, the results of fat tissue aspiration were positive. The clinical utility of fat tissue aspiration was greater than that of biopsy of the rectum. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous abdominal fat aspiration is the preferred method for detecting systemic amyloidosis, with sensitivity of 80% associated with use of a routine approach. The use of a thorough assessment (3 fat smears, 2 observers) increased sensitivity to >90%. If the results of fat tissue aspiration are negative, the additional value of a subsequent biopsy of the rectum is negligible.  (+info)

(5/133) A cardiologist's guide to waist management.

Clinical management of obesity remains a challenge.  (+info)

(6/133) Preoperative weight loss with a very-low-energy diet: quantitation of changes in liver and abdominal fat by serial imaging.

BACKGROUND: A very-low-energy diet (VLED) can result in substantial, rapid weight loss and is increasingly prescribed before obesity surgery to minimize risk and difficulty by reducing liver size and abdominal adiposity. Despite its growing popularity, a VLED in this setting has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and acceptability of a preoperative VLED. DESIGN: In a prospective observational study, 32 subjects (n = 19 men and 13 women) with a mean (+/-SD) age of 47.5 +/- 8.3 y and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 47.3 +/- 5.3 consumed a VLED for 12 wk. Primary outcomes included changes in liver volume (LV) and in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT). Changes in body weight, anthropometric measures, and biochemical variables were also recorded, and compliance with, acceptability of, and side effects of treatment were assessed. Changes in LV and VAT/SAT area were measured by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SD) LV, VAT/SAT, and body weight decreased significantly (P < 0.001 for all). The degree of LV reduction was directly related to the reduction in relative body weight (r = 0.54, P = 0.001) and initial LV (r = 0.43, P = 0.015). Eighty percent of the reduction in LV occurred between weeks 0 and 2 (P < 0.001). Reductions in body weight and VAT were uniform over the 12-wk period. Attrition was 14%. Acceptability was adequate but waned over time, and mild transitory side effects occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Given the observed early reduction in LV and the progressive reduction in VAT, we suggest that the minimum duration for a preoperative VLED be 2 wk. Ideally, the duration should be 6 wk to achieve maximal LV reduction and significant reductions in VAT and body weight without compromising compliance and acceptability.  (+info)

(7/133) Preventing a surgical complication during cesarean delivery in a morbidly obese patient: a simple apparatus to retract the abdominal panniculus.

Obesity is no longer just a "Western" problem, as evidenced by an increase in prevalence of up to 75% in parts of the developing world. It is important to transfer experience from the developed world to developing countries in an attempt to prepare for the inevitable health and economic problems. This case report highlights an unusual intraoperative complication that has medical and medico-legal implications. A simple apparatus designed to retract the panniculus of an obese patient might reduce complications when performing abdominal surgery in such cases.  (+info)

(8/133) Fatty liver is an integral feature of familial combined hyperlipidaemia: relationship with fat distribution and plasma lipids.

Overproduction of VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles is an important cause of FCHL (familial combined hyperlipidaemia). It has been shown recently that VLDL production is driven by the amount of hepatic fat. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of fatty liver in relation to the different fat compartments and lipid parameters in FCHL. A total of 68 FCHL patients, 110 normolipidaemic relatives and 66 spouses underwent ultrasound of the abdominal region to estimate the amount of subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat. Skinfold callipers were used to measure subcutaneous fat of the biceps, triceps, subscapular and supra-iliacal regions. Fatty liver was observed in 18% of the spouses, 25% of the normolipidaemic relatives and 49% of the FCHL patients. After adjustment for age, gender and body mass index, the prevalence of fatty liver was significantly higher in FCHL patients compared with spouses [OR (odds ratio), 3.1; P=0.03], and also in the normolipidaemic relatives compared with spouses (OR, 4.0; P=0.02), whereas no differences were observed between FCHL patients and normolipidaemic relatives (OR, 0.8; P=0.58). In the normolipidaemic relatives and FCHL patients combined, both visceral fat mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat were independent predictors of fatty liver (P<0.001 for both fat compartments; FCHL status corrected). Of interest, fatty liver stages were correlated with both VLDL-apoB (apolipoprotein B) and VLDL-triacylglycerols (triglycerides) in a representative subset (n=69) of patients and relatives (r(2)=0.12, P=0.006; and r(2)=0.18, P=0.001 respectively). These results show that fatty liver is a central aspect of FCHL, i.e. patients and normolipidaemic relatives. Both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity contribute to its 3-4-fold higher risk in FCHL.  (+info)