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(1/459) Disease pattern in cranial and large-vessel giant cell arteritis.

OBJECTIVE: To identify variables that distinguish large-vessel giant cell arteritis (GCA) with subclavian/axillary/brachial artery involvement from cranial GCA. METHODS: Seventy-four case patients with subclavian/axillary GCA diagnosed by angiography and 74 control patients with temporal artery biopsy-proven GCA without large vessel involvement matched for the date of first diagnosis were identified. Pertinent initial symptoms, time delay until diagnosis, and clinical symptoms, as well as clinical and laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis, were recorded by retrospective chart review. Expression of cytokine messenger RNA in temporal artery tissue from patients with large-vessel and cranial GCA was determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Distribution of disease-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles in patients with aortic arch syndrome and cranial GCA was assessed. RESULTS: The clinical presentation distinguished patients with large-vessel GCA from those with classic cranial GCA. Upper extremity vascular insufficiency dominated the clinical presentation of patients with large-vessel GCA, whereas symptoms related to impaired cranial blood flow were infrequent. Temporal artery biopsy findings were negative in 42% of patients with large-vessel GCA. Polymyalgia rheumatica occurred with similar frequency in both patient groups. Large-vessel GCA was associated with higher concentrations of interleukin-2 gene transcripts in arterial tissue and overrepresentation of the HLA-DRB1*0404 allele, indicating differences in pathogenetic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: GCA is not a single entity but includes several variants of disease. Large-vessel GCA produces a distinct spectrum of clinical manifestations and often occurs without involvement of the cranial arteries. Large-vessel GCA requires a different approach to the diagnosis and probably also to treatment.  (+info)

(2/459) Percutaneous revascularization of atherosclerotic obstruction of aortic arch vessels.

OBJECTIVES: To compare stenting of aortic arch vessel obstruction with surgical therapy and to establish recommendations for treatment. BACKGROUND: Though surgery has been considered to be the procedure of choice for subclavian and brachiocephalic obstruction, little work has been done to compare it with stenting. METHODS: Eighteen patients with symptomatic aortic arch vessel stenosis or occlusion were treated with stenting, followed by periodic clinical follow-up and noninvasive arterial Doppler studies. Data were compared with the results as shown in a systematic review of a published series of surgery and stenting procedures which included comparison of technical success, complications, mortality and patency. RESULTS: Primary success in our series was 100% with improvement in mean stenosis from 84+/-11% to 1+/-5% and mean arm systolic blood pressure difference from 44+/-16 mm Hg to 3+/-3 mm Hg. There were no major complications (death, stroke, TIA, stent thrombosis or myocardial infarction). At follow-up (mean 17 months), all patients were asymptomatic with 100% primary patency. Literature review demonstrates equivalent patency and complications in the other published series of stenting. In contrast, there was a similar patency but overall incidence of stroke of 3+/-4% and death of 2+/-2% in the published surgical series. CONCLUSIONS: Subclavian or brachiocephalic artery obstruction can be effectively treated by primary stenting or surgery. Comparison of stenting and the surgical experience demonstrates equal effectiveness but fewer complications and suggests that stenting should be considered as first line therapy for subclavian or brachiocephalic obstruction.  (+info)

(3/459) Subclavian artery resection and reconstruction for thoracic inlet cancers.

PURPOSE: We previously described an original transcervical approach to resect primary or secondary malignant diseases that invade the thoracic inlet (TI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and long-term results of the resection and revascularization of the subclavian artery (SA). METHODS: Between 1986 and 1998, 34 patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent en bloc resection of TI cancer that had invaded the SA. The surgical approach was an L-shaped transclavicular cervicotomy in 33 patients. In 14 of these patients, this approach was associated with a posterolateral thoracotomy (n = 10) or a posterior midline approach (n = 4). In one patient, the procedure was achieved with a single posterolateral thoracotomy approach. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed in 16 patients. In one patient, a subclavian-left common carotid artery transposition was performed. In one other patient, an end-to-end anastomosis was performed between the proximal innominate artery and the SA. The right carotid artery was transposed into the SA in an end-to-side fashion. In 16 patients, prosthetic revascularization with a polytetrafluoroethylene graft was performed. Thirty-three patients underwent postoperative radiation therapy. RESULTS: There were no cases of perioperative death, neurologic sequelae, graft infections or occlusions, or limb ischemia. There were two delayed asymptomatic polytetrafluoroethylene graft occlusions at 12 and 31 months. The 5-year patency rate was 85%. During this study, 20 patients died: 18 died of tumor recurrence (5 local and systemic and 13 systemic), one of respiratory failure, and one of an unknown cause at 74 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 18%. CONCLUSION: Tumor arterial invasion per se should not be a contraindication to TI cancer resection. This study shows that cancers that invade the SA can be resected through an L-shaped transclavicular cervicotomy, with good results with a concomitant revascularization of the SA.  (+info)

(4/459) Left subclavian artery aneurysm: two cases of rare congenital etiology.

Subclavian artery aneurysms are uncommon. The most common causes of these aneurysms are atherosclerosis and traumatic pseudoaneurysm. We report two cases of rare congenial left subclavian artery aneurysms. Diagnosis with aortography and treatment with resection with bypass grafting are the optimal approaches to avoid life-threatening and limb-threatening ischemia.  (+info)

(5/459) Long-term results and outcomes of crossover axilloaxillary bypass grafting: A 24-year experience.

OBJECTIVE: The outcome of crossover axilloaxillary bypass grafting in patients with stenosis or occlusion of the innominate or subclavian arteries was investigated. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective clinical study in a university hospital setting with 61 patients as the basis of the study. Fifty-eight patients (95.1%) had at least two risk factors or associated medical illnesses for atherosclerosis, and 35 patients (57.4%) had concomitant carotid artery stenosis that necessitated a staged procedure in 12 patients (19.7%). The patients underwent a total of 63 crossover axilloaxillary bypass grafting procedures. Demographics, risk factors and associated medical illnesses, preoperative symptoms and angiographic data, blood flow inversion in the vertebral artery, concomitant carotid artery disease, graft shape, caliber and material, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were studied to assess the specific influence in determining the outcome. RESULTS: One postoperative death (1.6%), four early graft thromboses (6.2%), and six minor complications (9. 8%) occurred. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 1.6% and 16.1%, respectively. During the follow-up period (mean, 97.3 +/- 7.9 months), we observed five graft thromboses (8.3%). Primary and secondary patency rates at 5 and 10 years were 86.5% and 82.8% and 88.1% and 84.3%, respectively. Overall, two patients (3.3%) had recurrence of upper limb symptoms and none had recurrence of symptoms in the carotid or vertebrobasilar territory. The 5-year and 10-year symptom-free interval rates were 97.7% and 93.5%, respectively. Nine patients (15%) died of unrelated causes. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 93.2% and 67.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that no specific variables exerted an influence in the short-term and long-term results and the outcome. CONCLUSION: The optimal outcome of axilloaxillary bypass grafting supports its use as the most valuable surgical alternative to transthoracic anatomic reconstructions for innominate lesion, long stenosis of the subclavian artery, and short subclavian artery stenosis associated with ispilateral carotid artery lesions.  (+info)

(6/459) Cervical vertebral and subclavian artery reconstructions.

At our institution, endovascular treatment of subclavian artery (SA) or vertebral artery (VA) occlusive disease has been used as the treatment of first choice during the last years. Open procedures were performed only in cases of failed or unfeasible endovascular treatment or total occlusion of the proximal VA or SA, respectively. Nineteen open procedures were performed between 1992 and 1996. Proximal reconstructions included SA to common carotid artery (CCA) transpositions or bypasses and VA to CCA transpositions. Distal reconstructions included transposition techniques or direct reconstruction in a few cases of traumatic lesions. The operative procedure used two-channel transcranial Doppler monitoring for cases involving simultaneous CCA and SA or VA cross clamping. There was one technical failure of a distal VA reconstruction. No surgical complications occurred. The recent pertinent literature with regard to indications and techniques of SA and VA reconstructions is discussed.  (+info)

(7/459) New arguments for a vasculitic nature of polymyalgia rheumatica using positron emission tomography.

OBJECTIVE: To study the possible contribution of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. METHODS: A consecutive case series consisting of five patients with polymyalgia rheumatica, six patients with temporal arteritis and 23 age-matched patients with other inflammatory conditions were evaluated with FDG-PET. Studies were performed before therapy with steroids was started. RESULTS: A total of 4/6 patients with giant cell arteritis and 4/5 patients with polymyalgia had increased FDG uptake in their thoracic vessels, compared to 1/23 controls (P < 0.001). Increased vascular FDG uptake in the upper legs was seen in 8/11 patients with giant cell arteritis or polymyalgia compared to 8/23 control patients (P < 0.05), and in the lower legs in 6/11 patients compared to 6/23 controls (P = not significant). CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET scan is the first non-invasive technique which may indicate large-vessel vasculitis and which can show its extension throughout the body. It strongly suggests that polymyalgia rheumatica is a form of vasculitis.  (+info)

(8/459) Migraine complicated by brachial plexopathy as displayed by MRI and MRA: aberrant subclavian artery and cervical ribs.

This article describes migraine without aura since childhood in a patient with bilateral cervical ribs. In addition to usual migraine triggers, symptoms were triggered by neck extension and by arm abduction and external rotation; paresthesias and pain preceded migraine triggered by arm and neck movement. Suspected thoracic outlet syndrome was confirmed by high-resolution bilateral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brachial plexus. An unsuspected aberrant right subclavian artery was compressed within the scalene triangle. The aberrant subclavian artery splayed apart the recurrent laryngeal and vagus nerves, displaced the esophagus anteriorly, and effaced the right stellate ganglia and the C8-T1 nerve roots. Scarring and fibrosis of the left scalene triangle resulted in acute angulation of the neurovascular bundle and diminished blood flow in the subclavian artery and vein. A branch of the left sympathetic ganglia was displaced as it joined the C8-T1 nerve roots. Left scalenectomy and rib resection confirmed the MRI and MRA findings; the scalene triangle contents were decompressed, and migraine symptoms subsequently resolved.  (+info)