Views of managed care--a survey of students, residents, faculty, and deans at medical schools in the United States.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Views of managed care among academic physicians and medical students in the United States are not well known. In 1997, we conducted a telephone survey of a national sample of medical students (506 respondents), residents (494), faculty members (728), department chairs (186), directors of residency training in internal medicine and pediatrics (143), and deans (105) at U.S. medical schools to determine their experiences in and perspectives on managed care. The overall rate of response was 80.1 percent. RESULTS: Respondents rated their attitudes toward managed care on a 0-to-10 scale, with 0 defined as "as negative as possible" and 10 as "as positive as possible." The expressed attitudes toward managed care were negative, ranging from a low mean (+/-SD) score of 3.9+/-1.7 for residents to a high of 5.0+/-1.3 for deans. When asked about specific aspects of care, fee-for-service medicine was rated better than managed care in terms of access (by 80.2 percent of respondents), minimizing ethical conflicts (74.8 percent), and the quality of the doctor-patient relationship (70.6 percent). With respect to the continuity of care, 52.0 percent of respondents preferred fee-for-service medicine, and 29.3 percent preferred managed care. For care at the end of life, 49.1 percent preferred fee-for-service medicine, and 20.5 percent preferred managed care. With respect to care for patients with chronic illness, 41.8 percent preferred fee-for-service care, and 30.8 percent preferred managed care. Faculty members, residency-training directors, and department chairs responded that managed care had reduced the time they had available for research (63.1 percent agreed) and teaching (58.9 percent) and had reduced their income (55.8 percent). Overall, 46.6 percent of faculty members, 26.7 percent of residency-training directors, and 42.7 percent of department chairs reported that the message they delivered to students about managed care was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Negative views of managed care are widespread among medical students, residents, faculty members, and medical school deans. (+info)
The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study.
To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field. (+info)
Introducing managed care to the medical school curriculum: effect on student attitudes.
In order to assess the effect of clinical training and didactic instruction on medical student attitudes toward managed care, we conducted a survey of all medical students at the midpoint of their third year clerkships at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The students were exposed to clinical training in managed care settings and a 2-day required course on the principles underlying managed care. The main outcome measures were student attitudes toward the concepts of managed care, managed care organizations, and future careers in managed care. Students also assessed the attitudes of medical faculty toward managed care. Attitudes of students with previous clinical training in managed care settings did not differ from those of students without such exposure toward the concepts underlying managed care or managed care organizations and were less positive about careers in managed care. Student responses before and after the 2-day course on managed care demonstrated that attitudes moved in a significantly positive direction. Seventy-one percent of students reported that the opinions they had heard from medical faculty about managed care were negative. Preparing medical students to practice medicine effectively in managed care settings will require focused attention on managed care issues in the medical school curriculum and the combined efforts of academic health centers and managed care organizations. (+info)
Comparing ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of educational planning.
To compare ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of the use of educational planning (setting goals, assessing needs, formulating objectives, choosing methods, and providing feedback and evaluation) in the office setting, we mailed a survey, which was returned by 127 longitudinal ambulatory preceptors and 168 first-year and second-year medical students. Faculty perceptions did not match student perceptions of what occurred in the longitudinal preceptor program teaching sessions in educational planning areas. Students perceived these activities were occurring with much less frequency than faculty perceived. Medical education needs to move beyond the usual faculty development workshop paradigm to a more comprehensive educational development model that includes training both faculty and students in core educational skills. This will enable the ambulatory setting to reach its full educational potential in training future physicians. (+info)
Experiences and attitudes of residents and students influence voluntary service with homeless populations.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of two programs at the University of Pittsburgh, one that requires and one that encourages volunteer activity. In the program that requires primary care interns to spend 15 hours in a homeless clinic, we measured volunteer service after the requirement was fulfilled. In the program that encourages and provides the structure for first- and second-year medical students to volunteer, we assessed correlates of volunteering. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: When primary care interns were required to spend time at homeless clinics, all (13/13) volunteered to work at the same clinic in subsequent years. Categorical interns without this requirement were less likely to volunteer (24/51; chi2 = 12.7, p >. 001). Medical students who volunteered were more likely to be first-year students, have previously volunteered in a similar setting, have positive attitudes toward caring for indigent patients, and have fewer factors that discouraged them from volunteering (p <. 01 for all) than students who did not volunteer. CONCLUSIONS: Volunteering with underserved communities during medical school and residency is influenced by previous experiences and, among medical students, year in school. Medical schools and residency programs have the opportunity to promote volunteerism and social responsibility through mentoring and curricular initiatives. (+info)
Tracing the evolution of critical evaluation skills in students' use of the Internet.
This paper documents the evolving uses of the Internet made by public health graduate students and traces the development of their search methods and critical evaluative criteria. Early in the first semester and again six months later, twenty-four graduate students in a problem-based learning curriculum, which emphasizes evidence-based critical thinking skills, were required to describe their most helpful resources and to evaluate these resources critically. The answers were coded for the types of resources the students used, how frequently they were used, and why they were used. Student perception of the usefulness of resources, especially the Internet, and ability to evaluate these resources critically changed greatly. Initially, 96% of the students stated that the Internet was their most helpful resource. Six months later, these students continued to use the Internet; however, it was not their most useful source. At the later point, students had very specific uses for the Internet. Their most frequently used evaluation criterion was the reliability and objectivity of the source of the information. By the end of the first year of study, the majority of the students demonstrated an understanding of the principles of evidence-based practice and applied them to their research and analysis of information resources. (+info)
Can paediatric medical students devise a satisfactory standard of examination for their colleagues?
OBJECTIVES: To determine what standard paediatric medical students would set for examining their peers and how that would compare with the university standard. DESIGN: Single blinded computer marked examination with questionnaire. SETTING: University medical school. SUBJECTS: Medical students during their final paediatric attachment. INTERVENTIONS: Medical students asked to derive 10, five branch negatively marked multiple choice questions (MCQs) to a standard that would fail those without sufficient knowledge. Each 10 were then assessed by another student as to the degree of difficulty and the relevance to paediatrics. One year later student peers sat a mock MCQ examination derived from a random 40 questions (unaware that the mock MCQs had been derived by peers). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of marks obtained in mock and final MCQ examinations; student perception of the standard in the two examinations assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: 44 students derived 439 questions, of which 83% were considered an appropriate standard by a classmate. One year later 62 students sat the mock examination. Distribution of marks was better in the mock MCQ examination than the final MCQ examination. Students considered the mock questions to be a more appropriate standard (72% v 31%) and the topics more relevant (88% v 64%) to paediatric medical students. Questions were of a similar clarity in both examinations (73% v 78%). CONCLUSIONS: Students in this study were able to derive an examination of a satisfactory standard for their peers. Involvement of students in deriving examination standards may give them a better appreciation of how standards should be set and maintained. (+info)
What do internal medicine residents need to enhance their diabetes care?
OBJECTIVE: To identify areas that should be targeted for improvement in care, we examined internal medicine resident practice patterns and beliefs regarding diabetes in a large urban hospital outpatient clinic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Internal medicine residents were surveyed to assess the frequency at which they performed key diabetes quality of care indicators. Responses were compared with recorded performance derived from chart and laboratory database reviews. Resident attitudes about diabetes were determined using the Diabetes Attitude Survey for Practitioners. Finally, an eight-item scale was used to assess barriers to diabetes care. RESULTS: Both self-described and recorded performance of recommended diabetes services short of national recommendations. For yearly eye examinations and lipid screening, recorded performance levels were similar to trainees' reports. However, documented inquiries about patient self-monitoring of blood glucose, performance of foot examinations, and urine protein screening were lower than trainees' reports. Some 49% of the residents selected a target HbA1c of 6.6-7.5% as an attainable goal, yet half of the patients using oral agents or insulin had HbA1c values > 8.0%. No differences in self-described or recorded performance were found by year of training. Most residents did not perceive themselves to need additional training related to diabetes care, and residents were generally neutral about patient autonomy. Patient nonadherence and time constraints within the clinic were most often cited as barriers to care. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies several areas that require improvement in resident care of diabetes in the ambulatory setting. Because experience during training contributes to future practice patterns, developing a program that teaches trainees how to implement diabetes practice guidelines and methods to achieve optimal glycemic control may be key to future improvements in the quality of diabetes care. (+info)