Recruitment and retention: the development of an action plan for African-American health professions students.
This article presents results of a survey of African-American students enrolled in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, allied health, pharmacy, and nursing at the University of Kentucky. The survey was designed to determine the students' perceptions of factors that affect recruitment, enrollment, and academic progress of African-American students. Fifty-three of seventy students responded to survey questions addressing recruitment; admissions; and financial, social, personal, and academic support. Over 50% of medical students decided by junior high to enter a health career; only 15% of other students decided that early. The influence of a family member was more important in student decisions to enter nursing or medicine than in decisions by other students. Only 17% of medical students reported difficulty in locating sources of financial aid compared to 48% of those from other colleges. Perceptions regarding lack of social outlets were consistent among respondents from all colleges. Findings emphasize the importance of early exposure to the health professions, early outreach strategies, ongoing financial assistance, and the importance of establishing social networks for African-American students enrolled in a majority institution. The survey results were used to develop an action plan for the offices of minority affairs, student services, and academic affairs to address identified problems and concerns. (+info)
Some trends in schools of public health.
Some of the recent changes in the schools of public health include: an increasing number of schools and of graduates; a decrease in both the awarding of the MPH degree as compared with other masters degrees, and the DrPH degree as compared with the PhD; a trend toward lengthening the time for achieving the MPH degree; an increase in part-time study for graduate degrees; institution of undergraduate programs and external masters degree programs; a thrust toward greater continuing education activities; and a broadened base for the student population in terms of the heterogeneity of professional backgrounds and prior experience, a wider age range with more younger students, more women students, fewer foreign students, and an increase in minority representation. (+info)
Prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis and aphthous ulcers among young adults on six continents.
The prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU) in young adults - - 635 armed-forces recruits and 9897 health-profession students - - in 48 institutions in 21 countries was determined by a questionnaire survey. Two or more occurrences (lifetime prevalence) of RHL were reported by 33.2% of men and 28.0% of women; the corresponding figures for RAU were 38.7% and 49.7%. North American respondents, mainly from Canada, had a significantly higher prevalence of both lesions. There were some differences in relation to profession. Approximately 15% of all the people surveyed had had herpes labialis and 25% had had aphthous ulcers at least once during the previous year. Persons with a history of recurrence of one lesion were more likely to have a history of recurrence of the other. (+info)
Use of distance education in dental hygiene programs.
The prevalence of distance education is steadily increasing in institutions of higher education in the United States and abroad. Colleges and universities are seeking new avenues to deliver curricula to students in remote areas and/or to nontraditional students. Distance education is a relatively new venture for dental hygiene education. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and use of distance education in dental hygiene educational programs nationally. Dental hygiene directors of all associate degree and baccalaureate degree dental hygiene programs in the United States (N = 255) were mailed a fifteen-item survey regarding their use of distance education. Results of the study indicated that 22 percent of dental hygiene programs have implemented distance education. In addition, a large variety of courses are being offered by several distance education delivery methods. Thirty of the thirty-eight dental hygiene programs that responded to the survey reported that they were satisfied with their distance education initiatives. The length of time that distance education was offered by the dental hygiene program was not related to satisfaction level (p = .0795), and there was no relationship between the type of distance education used and satisfaction level (p > .05). Considering all factors involved in this study, we can conclude that distance education is being used in a substantial number of dental hygiene programs and that the majority of these programs are satisfied that distance education is an adequate alternative to traditional "brick and mortar" approaches. (+info)
Graduates' perceptions of self-assessment training in clinical dental hygiene education.
Although research regarding self-assessment as a curriculum component has been undertaken previously, no data have been reported regarding the perceptions of graduates who were taught self-assessment as a formalized component of accredited dental hygiene programs. Aided by alumni insight and the belief that the dental hygiene curriculum has the potential for improvement, the purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate dental hygienists' perceptions regarding self-assessment as a curriculum component and its impact on their clinical dental hygiene education. This investigation drew a sample of subjects from forty-eight graduates of a bachelor's degree dental hygiene program located within a college of dentistry. Twelve graduates were selected to participate in the study. An audiotaped semi-structured interview with predetermined questions served as a focus for the interview, yet amplification and probing allowed the participants to further articulate their feelings and thoughts. Findings indicated that participants believed self-assessment to be a worthwhile and positive component of the dental hygiene curriculum. All participants emphatically recounted with dramatic examples that training in self-assessment positively influenced their clinical dental hygiene education, permanently impacted their thinking process, and is being used in their practices. (+info)
The genetic associate: a new health professional.
Sarah Lawrence College has pioneered a masters program to train Genetic Associates. The Genetic Associate is a new category of allied health professional in clinical genetics. Trained to offer coordinative and supportive care to the patient with potential or actual genetic disease, Genetic Associates are potential providers of unmet health needs in the developing field of human genetics. There are 56 graduates of this program employed in 12 states and one foreign country. This paper describes the curriculum, the students, and a preliminary evaluation of Genetic Associates' performance as members of the health care team. (+info)
Construct validation of a model for professional behavior in physical therapist students.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For physical therapist educators, professional behavior has been difficult to define. The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a model of professional behavior that was previously established through consensus and reported in the literature. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-three students from 2 professional programs participated in the study. Using a self-administered questionnaire, students assessed how frequently they performed 152 behaviors on a 7-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using principal components factor analysis. A Cronbach alpha was used to demonstrate internal consistency of items within each factor. Factor scores were submitted as dependent variables in analyses of variance to examine the differences in abilities according to amount of clinical education completed. RESULTS: The analysis identified 7 factors that explained 52% of the variance. These factors were labeled Professionalism, Critical Thinking, Professional Development, Communication Management, Personal Balance, Interpersonal Skills, and Working Relationships. Cronbach alphas ranged from.81 to.95. Behaviors increased in frequency in 4 of the 7 areas identified according to the level of students' progress in the educational program. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The 7 factors corresponded fairly well to the 10 generic abilities previously identified. Although some behaviors may increase in frequency over the course of students' educational experience, others may be displayed at admission. (+info)
Critical thinking in respiratory care practice: a qualitative research study.
INTRODUCTION: Recent publications indicate that critical thinking should be an integral part of respiratory care education. However, we know very little about critical thinking in the context of respiratory care. The critical thinking abilities and decision-making characteristics of practicing respiratory therapists have not been studied. PURPOSE: Identify and describe the critical thinking skills and traits of respiratory therapists, using a qualitative, descriptive research methodology. METHODS: Critical thinking was defined as the combination of logical reasoning, problem-solving, and reflection. The sample was selected through nominations of experts, using reputational-case selection. The research involved observations of 18 registered respiratory therapists, followed by in-depth interviews. Data were collected over a 1-year period and there were 125 hours of observation and 36 hours of interview. The observations were the basis for identifying and describing context-bound situations that require critical thinking, as well as the essential skills and related traits. RESULTS: The data set consists of over 600 single-spaced pages of interview transcripts and participant-observation field notes, in addition to 36 audio tapes. Field notes and interview transcripts were continuously analyzed throughout the study, using the constant-comparative method described by Glaser and Strauss. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that critical thinking in respiratory care practice involves the abilities to prioritize, anticipate, troubleshoot, communicate, negotiate, reflect, and make decisions. (+info)