Penetration effect of ostrich oil as a promising vehicle on transdermal delivery of sinomenine.
The present study investigated the feasibility of ostrich oil utilizing as a promising vehicle for improved skin permeation of sinomenine with reference to vaseline matrix containing different content of chemical enhancers. The fatty acid composition of ostrich oil was analyzed by GC-MS. Penetration enhancing potential of ostrich oil on permeation of sinomenine across rat abdominal skin in vitro was studied using an automatic diffusion cell apparatus. The content of sinomenine percutaneous absorbed was determined by HPLC. Various parameters viz. steady-state skin flux (J(ss)), permeability coefficient (kP), cumulative amount of sinomenine (Q) and enhancement ratios (ER) were calculated from the permeation data. Fick's law of diffusion and Scheuplein kinetic were used to evaluate the transdermal absorbent enhancement of ostrich oil to sinomenine. Ostrich oil showed significant penetration effect on sinomenine compared with vaseline matrix containing different content of chemical enhancers, the density sequence as follow: 2% Azone > ostrich oil > 1% Azone plus 1% propylene glycol > 1% Azone > 3% Azone > 1% propylene glycol. The percutaneous endosmic rate constant (J(ss)) and permeability coefficient (k(P)) of sinomenine in ostrich oil through rat skin were 10.01 mug/cm(2)/h and 0.087, respectively. Ostrich oil produced stronger enhancement (ER = 24.31) with greater cumulative amount of drug permeated (255.53 mug/cm(2)) up to 24 h and caused no skin irritation. The drug release of sinomenine was coincided with Fick's equation. In summary, ostrich oil containing fatty acids is proposed as a promising adjuvant for use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals for improved permeation of drug. (+info)
Reconstruction and in vivo analysis of the extinct tbx5 gene from ancient wingless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes).
Experimental infection of ostriches with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus.
Following the occurrence of an outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) among workers at an ostrich abattoir in South Africa in 1996, 9 susceptible young ostriches were infected subcutaneously with the virus in order to study the nature of the infection which they undergo. The ostriches developed viraemia which was demonstrable on days 1-4 following infection, with a maximum intensity of 4.0 log10 mouse intracerebral LD50/ml being recorded on day 2 in 1 of the birds. Virus was detectable in visceral organs such as spleen, liver and kidney up to day 5 post-inoculation, 1 day after it could no longer be found in blood. No infective virus was detected in samples of muscle, but viral nucleic acid was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in muscle from a bird sacrificed on day 3 following infection. It was concluded that the occurrence of infection in ostriches at abattoirs could be prevented by keeping the birds free of ticks for 14 days before slaughter. (+info)