The age of the carbonates in martian meteorite ALH84001.
The age of secondary carbonate mineralization in the martian meteorite ALH84001 was determined to be 3.90 +/- 0.04 billion years by rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) dating and 4.04 +/- 0.10 billion years by lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating. The Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isochrons are defined by leachates of a mixture of high-graded carbonate (visually estimated as approximately 5 percent), whitlockite (trace), and orthopyroxene (approximately 95 percent). The carbonate formation age is contemporaneous with a period in martian history when the surface is thought to have had flowing water, but also was undergoing heavy bombardment by meteorites. Therefore, this age does not distinguish between aqueous and impact origins for the carbonates. (+info
Isotopes, ice ages, and terminal Proterozoic earth history.
Detailed correlations of ancient glacial deposits, based on temporal records of carbon and strontium isotopes in seawater, indicate four (and perhaps five) discrete ice ages in the terminal Proterozoic Eon. The close and repeated stratigraphic relationship between C-isotopic excursions and glaciogenic rocks suggests that unusually high rates of organic carbon burial facilitated glaciation by reducing atmospheric greenhouse capacity. The emerging framework of time and environmental change contributes to the improved resolution of stratigraphic and evolutionary pattern in the early fossil record of animals. (+info
Changes in 87mSr concentractions in skeletal metastases in patients responding to cyclical combination chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer.
Serial 87mSr bone scintigrams were performed on a series of patients being treated by cyclical combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. All the patients investigated responeded to the chemotherapy, but initially the scintigrams showed an apparent deterioration, in that the tumor-to-normal isotope uptake ratios increased. Following this initial "flare" the scintigram appearance improved with a decrease in the tumor-to-normal uptake ratio. It is suggested that deterioration in the scintigram in the early stages of treatment should not be regarded as an indication that the patient is failing to respond. (+info
Accretion rates of meteorites and cosmic dust in the Early Ordovician.
Abundant fossil meteorites in marine, condensed Lower Ordovician limestones from Kinnekulle, Sweden, indicate that accretion rates of meteorites were one to two orders of magnitude higher during an interval of the Early Ordovician than at present. Osmium isotope and iridium analyses of whole-rock limestone indicate a coeval enhancement of one order of magnitude in the influx rate of cosmic dust. Enhanced accretion of cosmic matter may be related to the disruption of the L chondrite parent body around 500 million years ago. (+info
The clinical role of skeletal scanning.
Malignant disease very often spreads to the skeleton. This is particularly true for carcinomas of the breast, the lungs, the prostate, and the thyroid. Knowledge of the state of the skeleton in these disorders is therefore desirable since patient management will largely depend on the early detection of bony deposits. Primary bone disease often spreads to soft tissue (lungs), and the early detection of this may alter significantly the therapeutic approach to the primary lesion. Traditionally, X-ray skeletal surveys and serum enzyme measurements provide indices which can be used in the staging of these disorders. Complementary techniques such as mammography, xeroradiography, thermography, and radionuclide imaging have been used to provide further relevant information. A number of benign bone diseases need early assessment in order to institute the best form of treatment. It is of importance to assess the circulation in localized areas of bone and to predict the appearance of avascular necrosis, to understand the healing mechanisms involved in fractures, and to predict the outcome of bone grafting. In this paper the clinical role of bone scanning is reviewed, particular attention being given to the recent advances brought about by the introduction of the 99mTc compounds. It is important that the non-specialist should be aware of the great improvement in the results obtained and in the help they can give him in deciding on the best management of each patient as an individual. (+info
Strontium 87mSr bone scanning for the evaluation of total hip replacement.
In a series of seventeen patients with unilateral osteoarthritis of the hip a scintiscanning follow-up study was made before and after total hip replacement for the assessment of the normal course of the 87mSr-scintiscan. In another series of twenty-eight patients with total hip replacement a photoscan was made as a supplement for the diagnosis of loosening of one or both components of a total hip implant. In most of these cases it proved to be a useful method, especially when clinical and raidological examination was inconclusive. It is concluded that up to six months after operation increased osteoblastic activity exists; the scintiscan became normal after that time. 87mSr scintiscanning offers a safe and simple technique for the assessment of the success and stability of total hip arthroplasty. It is also a useful aid for the early detection of loosening and infection. The procedure can help in the differential diagnosis of complaints after total hip replacement. (+info
Strontium-89 and strontium-90 levels in breast milk and in mineral-suplement preparations.
Strontium-90, strontium-89 and S.U. values were determined in human milk before and after the resumption of atmospheric nuclear testings in 1961, and the levels were compared to cows' milk values reported during the same time. S.U.(90) levels in human milk were approximately one-fifth of those found in cows' milk. Assuming an average dietary intake of 11-13 S.U.(90) during the period tested, the mean strontium/calcium ratio of 1.78 found in human milk represents an Observed Ratio milk-diet of approximately 0.14-0.16. Although strontium-89 was present in cows' milk already in September 1961, it did not appear in human milk until November 1961. It seems, therefore, that there was a two-month lag period between the appearance of fresh fallout in cows' milk and human milk. Calcium-supplement mineral preparations used by pregnant and lactating women were tested to find their strontium-89, strontium-90 and S.U. levels, because strontium isotopes, if present in these products, will be transferred to the fetus and to breast-fed infants. The compounds tested had S.U.(90) levels of 0.13-2.62; in none of the preparations was Sr(89) present. (+info
A STUDY OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURAL LOCALIZATION OF HAIR KERATIN SYNTHESIS UTILIZING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC AUTORADIOGRAPHY IN A MAGNETIC FIELD.
The sites of the incorporation of labeled cystine into keratinizing structures were studied in electron microscopic autoradiographs. The tracer used was cystine labeled with S(35) emitting long-range ionizing particles. During exposure for 1 to 2 months, according to our method of electron microscopic autoradiography, emulsion-coated specimens were exposed to a static magnetic field which appeared to result in a marked increase in the number of reacted silver grains. In young Swiss mice receiving intraperitoneal injections at 1, 3, and 6 hours before biopsy, conventional autoradiography demonstrated that S(35)-cystine was intensely localized in the keratogenous zone of anagen hair follicles, and that the radioactivity there increased in intensity progressively with time while the radioactivity in the hair bulb always remained very low. Our observations with electron microscopic autoradiography in a magnetic field appeared to indicate that at 3 and 6 hours after injection the S(35)-cystine was directly and specifically incorporated into tonofibrils in the hair cortex and into amorphous keratin granules of the hair cuticle layer, possibly without any particular concentration of this substance in the other cellular components. There seemed to be an appreciable concentration of cystine in tonofibrils of the cuticle of the inner root sheath. However, trichohyalin granules in the hair medulla and inner root sheath failed to show any evidence of cystine concentration. The improved sensitivity of the electron microscopic autoradiography with S(35)-cystine appeared to be partly due to the application of a static magnetic field. However, the reason for this could not be explained theoretically. (+info