Ca-releasing action of beta, gamma-methylene adenosine triphosphate on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum.
beta,gamma-Methylene adenosine triphosphate (AMPOPCP) has two effects on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (FSR), i.e., inhibition of the rate of Ca uptake and the induction of Ca release from FSR filled with Ca. The Ca release brought about by AMPOPCP has many features in common with the mechanism of Ca-induced Ca release: i) it is inhibited by 10 mM procaine; ii) the amount of Ca release increases with increase in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the medium facilitates the release of Ca. However, no facilitation of Ca release upon decrease of Mg concentration in the medium is observable. AMPOPCP and caffeine potentiate each other remarkably in their Ca-releasing action, irrespective of the kind of substrate. From the mode of action of AMPOPCP on the rate of Ca uptake, the amount of phosphorylated intermediate (EP), and the effect on Sr release, it is suggested that the state of the FSR-ATP complex is crucial for Ca-induced Ca release. (+info)
Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus.
Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure. (+info)
Stimulation of strontium accumulation in linoleate-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a result of reduced Sr2+ efflux.
The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) (which results in 18:2 incorporation to approximately 70% of total cellular and plasma membrane fatty acids, with no effect on growth rate) yielded cells that accumulated Sr2+ intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr2+ concentrations (25 microM to 5 mM) and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr2+ accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced inhibition of Sr2+ accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K+ efflux, increased intracellular Sr2+ accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of 18:2-supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr2+ release from Sr2+-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr2+-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr2+ efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr2+ efflux activity in these cells. (+info)
Quantal amplitude and quantal variance of strontium-induced asynchronous EPSCs in rat dentate granule neurons.
1. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from granule cells of the dentate gyrus in acute slices of 17- to 21-day-old rats (22-25 C) using tissue cuts and minimal extracellular stimulation to selectively activate a small number of synaptic contacts. 2. Adding millimolar Sr2+ to the external solution produced asynchronous EPSCs (aEPSCs) lasting for several hundred milliseconds after the stimulus. Minimally stimulated aEPSCs resembled miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) recorded in the same cell but differed from them in ways expected from the greater range of dendritic filtering experienced by mEPSCs. aEPSCs had the same stimulus threshold as the synchronous EPSCs (sEPSCs) that followed the stimulus with a brief latency. aEPSCs following stimulation of distal inputs had a slower mean rise time than those following stimulation of proximal inputs. These results suggest that aEPSCs arose from the same synapses that generated sEPSCs. 3. Proximally elicited aEPSCs had a mean amplitude of 6.7 +/- 2.2 pA (+/- s.d., n = 23 cells) at -70 mV and an amplitude coefficient of variation of 0. 46 +/- 0.08. 4. The amplitude distributions of sEPSCs never exhibited distinct peaks. 5. Monte Carlo modelling of the shapes of aEPSC amplitude distributions indicated that our data were best explained by an intrasite model of quantal variance. 6. It is concluded that Sr2+-evoked aEPSCs are uniquantal events arising at synaptic terminals that were recently invaded by an action potential, and so provide direct information about the quantal amplitude and quantal variance at those terminals. The large quantal variance obscures quantization of the amplitudes of evoked sEPSCs at this class of excitatory synapse. (+info)
Voltage-dependent entry and generation of slow Ca2+ oscillations in glucose-stimulated pancreatic beta-cells.
The role of voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry for glucose generation of slow oscillations of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was evaluated in individual mouse pancreatic beta-cells. Like depolarization with K+, a rise of the glucose concentration resulted in an enhanced influx of Mn2+, which was inhibited by nifedipine. This antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels also blocked the slow oscillations of [Ca2+]i induced by glucose. The slow oscillations occurred in synchrony with variations in Mn2+ influx and bursts of action currents, with the elevation of [Ca2+]i being proportional to the frequency of the action currents. A similar relationship was obtained when Ca2+ was replaced with Sr2+. Occasionally, the slow [Ca2+]i oscillations were superimposed with pronounced spikes temporarily arresting the action currents. It is concluded that the glucose-induced slow oscillations of [Ca2+]i are caused by periodic depolarization with Ca2+ influx through L-type channels. Ca2+ spiking, due to intracellular mobilization, may be important for chopping the slow oscillations of [Ca2+]i into shorter ones characterizing beta-cells situated in pancreatic islets. (+info)
Evolution of contractile and elastic properties of rat soleus muscle fibres under unloading conditions.
Rats were submitted to 14 days of hindlimb suspension in order to examine the contractile and elastic properties of the soleus muscles under disuse conditions. The calcium/strontium activation properties, the maximal shortening velocity (V0), as well as the time behaviour of force transients following quick releases and the T1 curves characterizing the active part of the series elastic elements, were determined on single chemically skinned fibres. After the functional measurements, the fibres were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in order to analyse both the myosin heavy (MHC) and light (MLC) chain isoforms. According to the MHC and MLC composition, two groups of fibres were defined after hindlimb suspension: a group of slow fibres expressing the slow set of both MHC and MLC isoforms, and a group of fast fibres co-expressing the slow and fast MHC and MLC isoforms with a predominant expression of the fast ones. For the first group, the contractile as well as the elastic properties were found to be close to those of control slow soleus fibres. For the second group, both contractile and elastic properties were modified insofar as they became close to those found in a fast muscle such as the extensor digitorum longus. We suggested that between the two populations found in the soleus muscle after hindlimb suspension the modifications in the contractile properties, as well as the alterations in the elastic characteristics, were concomitant to the changes in both MHC and MLC compositions. (+info)
Two components of transmitter release from the chick ciliary presynaptic terminal and their regulation by protein kinase C.
1. A study was made of the effects of phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA, 0.1 microM) on the two components of evoked transmitter release, namely the fast synchronous and the slow asynchronous components, from the giant presynaptic terminal of the chick ciliary ganglion. The excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded under whole-cell voltage clamp of the postsynaptic neuron. 2. The decay time constant of the slow component was prolonged by replacing Ca2+ with Sr2+. In 5 mM [Sr2+]o the fast component decayed with a time constant of 2.6 +/- 1.4 ms whereas the slow component decayed with a time constant of 19 +/- 7 ms. 3. When stimulated with twin pulses with a short interpulse interval, the fast component of the second EPSC was often depressed whereas the slow component was usually facilitated. Both components were positively dependent on [Sr2+]o in a saturable manner, but the fast component approached its maximum at a lower [Sr2+]o than the slow component. 4. PMA potentiated both the fast and slow components to a similar extent and with a similar time course. For each component, the effect of PMA was less potent at high [Sr2+]o than at low [Sr2+]o. For either the fast or the slow component the PMA-induced potentiation was accompanied by a reduction in the paired-pulse ratio (PPR). 5. Despite the different dissociation constant for dextran-conjugated fura-2, the fluorescent ratio for intraterminal [Sr2+] ([Sr2+]i) decayed to the baseline after the nerve-evoked increment with a time course similar to that for [Ca2+]i, suggesting that intraterminal Sr2+ is buffered less efficiently than Ca2+. PMA did not increase the [Sr2+]i transients produced by stimulation of the presynaptic oculomotor nerve. 6. It is suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) modulates both the fast and slow components through common molecular mechanisms that upregulate the Sr2+ sensitivity of the vesicle fusion probability. (+info)
Presynaptic strontium dynamics and synaptic transmission.
Strontium can replace calcium in triggering neurotransmitter release, although peak release is reduced and the duration of release is prolonged. Strontium has therefore become useful in probing release, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Here we study the action of strontium at the granule cell to Purkinje cell synapse in mouse cerebellar slices. Presynaptic residual strontium levels were monitored with fluorescent indicators, which all responded to strontium (fura-2, calcium orange, fura-2FF, magnesium green, and mag-fura-5). When calcium was replaced by equimolar concentrations of strontium in the external bath, strontium and calcium both entered presynaptic terminals. Contaminating calcium was eliminated by including EGTA in the extracellular bath, or by loading parallel fibers with EGTA, enabling the actions of strontium to be studied in isolation. After a single stimulus, strontium reached higher peak free levels than did calcium (approximately 1.7 times greater), and decayed more slowly (half-decay time 189 ms for strontium and 32 ms for calcium). These differences in calcium and strontium dynamics are likely a consequence of greater strontium permeability through calcium channels, lower affinity of the endogenous buffer for strontium, and less efficient extrusion of strontium. Measurements of presynaptic divalent levels help to explain properties of release evoked by strontium. Parallel fiber synaptic currents triggered by strontium are smaller in amplitude and longer in duration than those triggered by calcium. In both calcium and strontium, release consists of two components, one more steeply dependent on divalent levels than the other. Strontium drives both components less effectively than does calcium, suggesting that the affinities of the sensors involved in both phases of release are lower for strontium than for calcium. Thus, the larger and slower strontium transients account for the prominent slow component of release triggered by strontium. (+info)