Aminoglycoside-streptothricin resistance gene cluster aadE-sat4-aphA-3 disseminated among multiresistant isolates of Enterococcus faecium.
Seventy-two Enterococcus faecium isolates of different origins highly resistant to nourseothricin and streptomycin were studied. Sequencing of a genomic fragment from two isolates identified a gene cluster, aadE-sat4-aphA-3, which has been isolated recently in staphylococci and Campylobacter coli. Patterns of digested PCR products of aadE-sat4-aphA-3 were identical for all isolates. (+info)
Ocular fluorophotometry in streptozotocin diabetes mellitus in the rat: effect of pancreatic islet isografts.
Fluorophotometry was used to evaluate the integrity of the blood-ocular barriers to fluorescein in experimental diabetes mellitus in rats. This technique allowed quantitation of ocular fluorescein concentrations following intravenous injection. Streptozotacin-induced diabetes resulted in an increased fluorescein accumulation in the anterior chamber (1.52 +/- 0.17 microgram/ml, mean +/- S.E.M.) and vitreous (0.82 +/- 0.11) over baseline nondiabetic levels (0.68 +/- 0.80 and 0.40 +/- 0.03, respectively). Fluorophotometry was repeated at 5, 13, and 20 days following portal vein pancreatic islet transplantation. At 5 days anterior chamber (1.40 +/- 0.17) and vitreous (0.61 +/- 0.08) fluorescein concentrations remained elevated. However, at 13 and 20 days following islet transplantation, ocular fluorescein concentrations were identical to levels observed prior to the induction of diabetes. Intravenous glucose (0.5 gm/kg) tolerance testing was performed 5 and 13 days following transplantation. The glucose responses to the tolerance test were normal and similar at both times. However, at 5 days the insulin response was abnormal with a decreased initial peak and an absent second peak. At 13 days there was a normal biphasic insulin response. In experimental diabetes mellitus ocular vascular permeability was more closely correlated with insulin than blood glucose abnormalities. (+info)
A beta-lysine adenylating enzyme and a beta-lysine binding protein involved in poly beta-lysine chain assembly in nourseothricin synthesis in Streptomyces noursei.
Nourseothricins (syn. Streptothricins), a group of nucleoside peptides produced by several streptomycete strains, contain a poly beta-lysine chain of variable length attached in amide linkage to the amino sugar moiety gulosamine of the nucleoside portion. We show that the nourseothricin-producing Streptomyces noursei contains an enzyme (NpsA) of an apparent M(r) 56,000 that specifically activates beta-lysine by adenylation but does not bind to it as a thioester. Cloning and sequencing of npsA from S. noursei including its flanking DNA regions revealed that it is closely linked to the nourseothricin resistance gene nat1 and some other genes on the chromosome possibly involved in nourseothricin biosynthesis. The deduced amino-acid sequence revealed that NpsA is a stand-alone adenylation domain with similarity to the adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Further analysis revealed that S. noursei contains a beta-lysine binding enzyme (NpsB) of about M(r) 64,100 which can be loaded by NpsA with beta-lysine as a thioester. Analysis of the deduced amino-acid sequence from the gene (npsB) of NpsB showed that it consists of two domains. The N-terminal domain of approximately 100 amino-acid residues has high similarity to PCP domains of NRPSs whereas the 450-amino-acid C-terminal domain has a high similarity to epimerization (E)-domains of NRPSs. Remarkably, in this E-domain the conserved H-H-motif is changed to H-Q, which suggests that either the domain is nonfunctional or has a specialized function. The presence of one single adenylating beta-lysine activating enzyme in nourseothricin-producing streptomycete and a separate binding protein suggests an iteratively operating NRPS-module catalyses synthesis of the poly beta-lysine chain. (+info)
Cryptococcus neoformans virulence gene discovery through insertional mutagenesis.
Insertional mutagenesis was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans to identify genes associated with virulence attributes. Using biolistic transformation, we generated 4,300 nourseothricin (NAT)-resistant strains, of which 590 exhibited stable resistance. We focused on mutants with defects in established virulence factors and identified two with reduced growth at 37 degrees C, four with reduced production of the antioxidant pigment melanin, and two with an increased sensitivity to nitric oxide (NO). The NAT insertion and mutant phenotypes were genetically linked in five of eight mutants, and the DNA flanking the insertions was characterized. For the strains with altered growth at 37 degrees C and altered melanin production, mutations were in previously uncharacterized genes, while the two NO-sensitive strains bore insertions in the flavohemoglobin gene FHB1, whose product counters NO stress. Because of the frequent instability of nourseothricin resistance associated with biolistic transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was tested. This transkingdom DNA delivery approach produced 100% stable nourseothricin-resistant transformants, and three melanin-defective strains were identified from 576 transformants, of which 2 were linked to NAT in segregation analysis. One of these mutants contained a T-DNA insertion in the promoter of the LAC1 (laccase) gene, which encodes a key enzyme required for melanin production, while the second contained an insertion in the promoter of the CLC1 gene, encoding a voltage-gated chloride channel. Clc1 and its homologs are required for ion homeostasis, and in their absence Cu+ transport into the secretory pathway is compromised, depriving laccase and other Cu(+)-dependent proteins of their essential cofactor. The NAT resistance cassette was optimized for cryptococcal codon usage and GC content and was then used to disrupt a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, a predicted gene, and two putative chloride channel genes to analyze their contributions to fungal physiology. Our findings demonstrate that both insertional mutagenesis methods can be applied to gene identification, but Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is more efficient and generates exclusively stable insertion mutations. (+info)
In situ monitoring of streptothricin production by Streptomyces rochei F20 in soil and rhizosphere.
The onset of streptothricin (ST) biosynthesis in Streptomyces rochei F20 was studied by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect transcripts of ST genes during growth in liquid medium, soil, and the rhizosphere. In situ results correlated with those obtained in vitro, illustrating the growth phase-dependent manner of ST production by F20. Maximal transcription of ST resistance (sttR) and biosynthesis (sttA) genes occurred during the transition between the exponential and stationary phases of growth, when the specific growth rate (micro) started to decline. A higher level of gene expression of sttR versus sttA was observed in all experiments. In liquid culture, maximal transcript accumulation of the sttA gene was only ca. 40% that of the sttR gene. sttA and sttR mRNAs were detected in soil containing approximately 10(6) CFU of growing cells g of soil(-1). sttR mRNA was detected in sterile and nonsterile rhizosphere colonized with growing mycelium of F20 at 1.2 x 10(6) and 4.0 x 10(5) CFU g of soil(-1), respectively. However, neither sttR nor sttA transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in the rhizoplane, which supported a lower population density of F20 than the rhizosphere. (+info)
CaNAT1, a heterologous dominant selectable marker for transformation of Candida albicans and other pathogenic Candida species.
A dominant selectable marker for Candida albicans and other Candida species, which confers resistance to nourseothricin, was characterized. In a heterologous promoter system and a recyclable cassette, the marker efficiently permitted deletion and complementation of C. albicans genes. Neither growth nor filamentous development was affected in strains expressing this marker. (+info)
Novel genes required for meiotic chromosome segregation are identified by a high-throughput knockout screen in fission yeast.
Two rounds of chromosome segregation after only a single round of DNA replication enable the production of haploid gametes from diploid precursors during meiosis. To identify genes involved in meiotic chromosome segregation, we developed an efficient strategy to knock out genes in the fission yeast on a large scale. We used this technique to delete 180 functionally uncharacterized genes whose expression is upregulated during meiosis. Deletion of two genes, sgo1 and mde2, caused massive chromosome missegregation. sgo1 is required for retention of centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion after anaphase I. We show here that mde2 is required for formation of the double-strand breaks necessary for meiotic recombination. (+info)
System of centromeric, episomal, and integrative vectors based on drug resistance markers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Integrative, centromeric, and episomal plasmids are essential for easy, fast, and reliable genetic manipulation of yeast. We constructed a system of shuttle vectors based on the widely used plasmids of the pRS series. We used genes conferring resistance to Geneticin (kanMX4), nourseothricin (natNT2), and hygromycin B (hphNT1) as markers. The centromeric and episomal plasmids that we constructed can be used the same way as the traditional auxotrophic marker-based shuttle vectors (pRS41x and pRS42x series). Additionally, we created a set of nine yeast integrative vectors with the three dominant markers. These plasmids allow for direct integration in the LEU2, URA3, and HIS3 locus of any yeast strain and the concomitant partial deletion of the gene. This prevents multiple integrations and allows for the rapid identification of correct integrants. The set of new vectors considerably enhances the flexibility of genetic manipulations and gene expression in yeast. Most notably, the new vectors allow one to work with natural yeast isolates, which do not contain auxotrophic markers. (+info)