Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei.
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei. (+info
The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls.
To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed. (+info
Enterococcal endocarditis: duration and mode of treatment.
This report summarizes data on sixteen patients with enterococcal endocarditis treated with penicillin and streptomycin. The experience reported suggests that a four week period is adequate for routine therapy in these patients, as in other forms of streptococcal endocarditis. It provides an additional group of patients successfully treated with penicillin and streptomycin. Two relapses were encountered. One of these received inadequate daily doses of penicillin. The other patient was clearly a failure of penicillin and streptomycin, but the failure in this instance could not be attributed to foreshortened treatment (6 weeks) or to high level streptomycin resistance of the infecting strain of Enterococcus. (+info
A five-year assessment of controlled trials of in-patient and out-patient treatment and of plaster-of-Paris jackets for tuberculosis of the spine in children on standard chemotherapy. Studies in Masan and Pusan, Korea. Fifth report of the Medical Research Council Working Party on tuberculosis of the spine.
In two centres in Korea 350 patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine were allocated at random: in Masan to in-patient rest in bed (IP) for six months followed by out-patient treatment or to ambulatory out-patient treatment (OP) from the start; in Pusan to out-patient treatment with a plaster-of-Paris jacket (J) for nine months or to ambulatory treatment without any support (No J). All patients recieved chemotherapy with PAS with isoniazid for eighteen months, either supplemented with streptomycin for the first three months (SPH) or without this supplement (PH), by random allocation. The main analysis of this report concerns 299 patients (eighty-three IP, eighty-three OP, sixty-three J, seventy No J; 143 SPH, 156 PH). Pre-treatment factors were similar in both centres except that the patients in Pusan had, on average, less extensive lesions although in a greater proportion the disease was radiographically active. One patient (J/SPH) died with active spinal disease and three (all No J/SPH) with paraplegia. A fifth patient (IP/PH) who died from cardio respiratory failure also had pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-three patients required operation and/or additional chemotherapy for the spinal lesion. A sinus or clinically evident abscess was either present initially or developed during treatment in 41 per cent of patients. Residual lesions persisted in ten patients (four IP, two OP, one J, three No J; six SPH, four PH) at five years. Thirty-two patients had paraparesis on admission or developing later. Complete resolution occurred in twenty on the allocated regimen and in eight after operation or additional chemotherapy or both. Of the remaining four atients, all of whom had operation and additional chemotherapy, three died and one still had paraparesis at five years. Of 295 patients assessed at five years 89 per cent had a favourable status. The proportions of the patients responding favourably were similar in the IP (91 per cent) and OP (89 per cent) series, in the J (90 per cent) and No J (84 per cent) series and in the SPH (86 per cent) and PH (92 per cent) series. (+info
In vitro activities of antibiotics alone and in combination against Brucella melitensis at neutral and acidic pHs.
Brucellae survive acidic pHs in phagolysosomes. Azithromycin, streptomycin, and quinolones were active against Brucella melitensis at pH 7.0 but not at pH 5.0; rifampin and doxycycline retained activity at pH 5.0. Regardless of pH, azithromycin-rifampin and ofloxacin-rifampin showed less synergy than established streptomycin-doxycycline and rifampin-doxycycline combinations. (+info
Estimation of growth rates of Escherichia coli BJ4 in streptomycin-treated and previously germfree mice by in situ rRNA hybridization.
The growth physiology of Escherichia coli during colonization of the intestinal tract was studied with four animal models: the streptomycin-treated mouse carrying a reduced microflora, the monoassociated mouse with no other microflora than the introduced strain, the conventionalized streptomycin-treated mouse, and the conventionalized monoassociated mouse harboring a full microflora. A 23S rRNA fluorescent oligonucleotide probe was used for hybridization to whole E. coli cells fixed directly after being taken from the animals, and the respective growth rates of E. coli BJ4 in the four animal models were estimated by correlating the cellular concentrations of ribosomes with the growth rate of the strain. The growth rates thus estimated from the ribosomal content of E. coli BJ4 in vivo did not differ in the streptomycin-treated and the monoassociated mice. After conventionalization there was a slight decrease of the bacterial growth rates in both animal models. (+info
Alkalinization-induced K+ current of the mouse megakaryocyte.
We have recently found that mouse megakaryocytes responded to extracellular alkalinization to pH > 8.0, generating a K+ current under voltage-clamped conditions with the whole cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique. The purpose of this study was to physiologically and pharmacologically characterize the alkaline-dependent K+ conductance of the megakaryocyte membrane. The alkalinization-induced K+ current (I(ALK)) did not seem to be Ca2+-dependent since I(ALK) was allowed to be generated under intracellularly Ca2+-buffered conditions with 10 mM EGTA, which completely prevented the generation of caffeine-induced Ca2+-activated currents of mouse megakaryocytes; and no [Ca2+]i elevation was evoked by the alkalinization protocol in contrast to a significant increase in [Ca2+]i in response to caffeine when [Ca2+]i was measured with a fura 2 ratiometry. I(ALK) was strongly suppressed with tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and streptomycin (SM), but was completely resistant to quinidine (QND). The values of IC50 for the suppression of I(ALK) with TEA, 4-AP and SM were 5.6, 0.47 and 1.5 mM, respectively. Voltage-gated K+ currents (I(K)) of the same megakaryocyte preparation were weakly suppressed with TEA and 4-AP, while they were significantly suppressed with either SM or QND. These results suggest that mouse megakaryocytes possess K+ conductance that was activated by extracellular alkalinization and that probably differs from conventional K+ conductance in its pharmacological properties. (+info
Frequency of F116-mediated transduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a freshwater environment.
Transduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa streptomycin resistance by a generalized transducing phage, F116, was shown to occur during a 10-day incubation in a flow-through environmental test chamber suspended in a freshwater reservoir. Mean F116 transduction frequencies ranged from 1.4 X 10(-5) to 8.3 X 10(-2) transductants per recipient during the in situ incubation. These transduction frequencies were comparable to transduction frequencies determined in preliminary laboratory transduction experiments. The results demonstrate the potential for naturally occurring transduction in aquatic environments and concurrent environmental and ecological ramifications. (+info