Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes.
Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests. (+info)
Possible involvement of cAMP in aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus.
In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) triggers secondary metabolism and morphogenesis by binding a repressor protein (ArpA) and dissociating it from DNA. UV-mutagenesis of the A-factor-deficient mutant HH1 generated strain HO2, defective in the synthesis of ArpA and therefore able to form aerial mycelium, spores and streptomycin. Shotgun cloning of chromosomal DNA from wild-type S. griseus in strain HO2 yielded a gene that suppressed aerial mycelium formation and streptomycin production. Nucleotide sequencing and subcloning revealed that the gene encoded a eukaryotic-type adenylate cyclase (CyaA). In mutant HO2 production of cAMP was growth-dependent until the middle of the exponential growth stage; the production profile was the same as in the wild-type strain. However, the amount of cAMP produced was five times larger when mutant HO2 harboured cyaA on the high-copy-number plasmid pIJ486. Consistent with this, supplying cAMP exogenously at a high concentration to mutant HO2 suppressed formation of both aerial mycelium and streptomycin. On the other hand, some lower concentrations of cAMP stimulated or accelerated aerial mycelium formation. No effects of exogenous cAMP on morphogenesis and secondary metabolism were apparent in the wild-type strain. In addition, disruption of the chromosomal cyaA gene in the wild-type strain had almost no effect. Introducing cyaA cloned in either a low- or a high-copy-number plasmid suppressed morphogenesis and secondary metabolism not only in mutant HO2 but also in other arpA mutants, implying that the effects of cAMP became apparent in the arpA-defective background. When mutant HO2 carried cyaA on a plasmid, synthesis of the stringent response factor ppGpp was greatly reduced; this may account for the observed suppression by cAMP of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. cAMP also affected protein tyrosine phosphorylation, as determined with antiphosphotyrosine antibody. (+info)
Nonactin biosynthesis: the product of nonS catalyzes the formation of the furan ring of nonactic acid.
Nonactin is the parent compound of a group of ionophore antibiotics, known as the macrotetrolides, produced by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus ETH A7796. Nonactin is a significant compound because of its inhibitory effects on the P170 glycoprotein-mediated efflux of chemotherapeutic agents in multiple-drug-resistant cancer cells. Nonactin is also significant in that it is a highly atypical polyketide. Very little is presently known about the genes of the nonactin biosynthesis cluster. In this paper we describe our efforts to establish a connection between the product of a gene from the nonactin biosynthesis cluster and a known biochemical transformation in nonactin biosynthesis. Nonactate synthase is the enzyme which catalyzes the formation of nonactic acid from an acyclic precursor in nonactin biosynthesis. We have synthesized the substrate for this enzyme and have detected the in vitro cyclization activity of the substrate in cell-free preparations of S. griseus subsp. griseus ETH A7796. Previous studies by R. Plater and J. A. Robinson (Gene 112:117-122, 1992) had suggested, based on sequence homology, that the product of a partial open reading frame found close to the tetranactin resistance gene of S. griseus could be the nonactate synthase. We have therefore cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed this full gene (nonS), and we have shown that the gene product, NonS, does indeed catalyze the formation of the furan ring of nonactic acid as hypothesized. (+info)
Functional analysis of genes from Streptomyces griseus involved in the synthesis of isorenieratene, a carotenoid with aromatic end groups, revealed a novel type of carotenoid desaturase.
The biosynthesis of the aromatic carotene isorenieratene is restricted to green photosynthetic bacteria and a few actinomycetes. Among them Streptomyces griseus has been used to study the genes involved in this pathway. Five genes out of seven of two adjacent operons in one cluster could be identified to be sufficient for the synthesis of isorenieratene. Stepwise deletions of these genes demonstrated their participation in phytoene synthesis, phytoene desaturation and lycopene cyclization. The novel gene crtU was assigned to encode a unique desaturase responsible for the conversion of beta-carotene via beta-isorenieratene to isorenieratene by a desaturation/methyltransferation mechanism. Sequence analysis of crtU revealed two conserved regions, one at the N-terminus and the other at the C-terminus of the protein which is universal to different types of carotene desaturases. In addition, the sequence comprises a motif typically found in methyltransferases. The deletion of the two remaining genes of the cluster left the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway unaffected. (+info)
Different phosphate binding modes of Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase between crystal and solution states and the status of zinc-bound water.
Phosphate shows a non-competitive inhibition toward a Streptomyces aminopeptidase (sAP) between pH 5.85 (Ki = 0.48 mM) and 9.0 (110 mM), with a pKa of 7.1 likely due to ionization of H2PO4-. This non-competitive inhibition pattern indicates that phosphate binding to sAP in solution is different from that in the crystal structure, where phosphate is bound to the active site Zn(II) ions. Fluoride uncompetitively inhibits sAP from pH 5.5 (Ki = 3.72 mM) to 9.0 (43.6 mM), with a pKa of approximately 6.2 likely due to a coordinated water. The different inhibition natures and pKa values indicate that the two inhibitors bind at different locations. (+info)
Analysis of fusion junctions of circularized chromosomes in Streptomyces griseus.
A filamentous soil bacterium, Streptomyces griseus 2247, carries a 7. 8-Mb linear chromosome. We previously showed by macrorestriction analysis that mutagenic treatments easily caused deletions at both ends of its linear chromosome and changed the chromosome to a circular form. In this study, we confirmed chromosomal circularization by cloning and sequencing the junction fragments from two deletion mutants, 404-23 and N2. The junction sequences were compared with the corresponding right and left deletion end sequences in the parent strain, 2247. No homology and a 6-bp microhomology were found between the two deletion ends of the 404-23 and N2 mutants, respectively, which indicate that the chromosomal circularization was caused by illegitimate recombination without concomitant amplification. The circularized chromosomes were stably maintained in both mutants. Therefore, the chromosomal circularization might have occurred to prevent lethal deletions, which otherwise would progress into the indispensable central regions of the chromosome. (+info)
Characterization of the gene for factor C, an extracellular signal protein involved in morphological differentiation of Streptomyces griseus.
The gene encoding factor C (facC), an extracellular signal protein involved in cellular differentiation, was cloned from Streptomyces griseus 45H, and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence was confirmed by HPLC/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis. The full-length protein consists of 324 amino acids and has a predicted molecular mass of 34,523 Da. The mature extracellular 286 amino acid protein (31,038 Da) is probably produced by cleaving off a 38 amino acid secretion signal sequence. Southern hybridization detected facC in several other Streptomyces strains, but database searches failed to identify a protein with significant homology to factor C. Expression of facC from a low-copy-number vector in S. griseus 52-1 resulted in a phenotypic effect similar to that given by exogenously added factor C protein. (+info)
A putative regulatory element for carbon-source-dependent differentiation in Streptomyces griseus.
To identify negative regulatory genes for cellular differentiation in Streptomyces griseus, DNA fragments repressing the normal developmental processes were cloned on a high-copy-number plasmid. One of these DNA fragments markedly repressed aerial mycelium and spore formation on solid media containing glucose or galactose, but not on media containing maltose or mannitol. The fragment contained three complete ORFs; precise subcloning revealed that a 249 bp fragment located in the promoter region between ORF1 and ORF3 was sufficient for repression. Quantification of the promoter activities by using a thermostable malate dehydrogenase gene as a reporter showed that the promoter for ORF3 (P(ORF3)) maintained high activity in mycelia grown in the presence of glucose but lost activity rapidly in maltose medium. P(ORF3) activity increased markedly when the promoter sequence was introduced on a high-copy-number plasmid. The results suggested that carbon-source-dependent deactivation of P(ORF3) mediated by a transcriptional repressor may initiate differentiation in S. griseus. (+info)