Engineered biosynthesis of regioselectively modified aromatic polyketides using bimodular polyketide synthases.
Bacterial aromatic polyketides such as tetracycline and doxorubicin are a medicinally important class of natural products produced as secondary metabolites by actinomyces bacteria. Their backbones are derived from malonyl-CoA units by polyketide synthases (PKSs). The nascent polyketide chain is synthesized by the minimal PKS, a module consisting of four dissociated enzymes. Although the biosynthesis of most aromatic polyketide backbones is initiated through decarboxylation of a malonyl building block (which results in an acetate group), some polyketides, such as the estrogen receptor antagonist R1128, are derived from nonacetate primers. Understanding the mechanism of nonacetate priming can lead to biosynthesis of novel polyketides that have improved pharmacological properties. Recent biochemical analysis has shown that nonacetate priming is the result of stepwise activity of two dissociated PKS modules with orthogonal molecular recognition features. In these PKSs, an initiation module that synthesizes a starter unit is present in addition to the minimal PKS module. Here we describe a general method for the engineered biosynthesis of regioselectively modified aromatic polyketides. When coexpressed with the R1128 initiation module, the actinorhodin minimal PKS produced novel hexaketides with propionyl and isobutyryl primer units. Analogous octaketides could be synthesized by combining the tetracenomycin minimal PKS with the R1128 initiation module. Tailoring enzymes such as ketoreductases and cyclases were able to process the unnatural polyketides efficiently. Based upon these findings, hybrid PKSs were engineered to synthesize new anthraquinone antibiotics with predictable functional group modifications. Our results demonstrate that (i) bimodular aromatic PKSs present a general mechanism for priming aromatic polyketide backbones with nonacetate precursors; (ii) the minimal PKS controls polyketide chain length by counting the number of atoms incorporated into the backbone rather than the number of elongation cycles; and (iii) in contrast, auxiliary PKS enzymes such as ketoreductases, aromatases, and cyclases recognize specific functional groups in the backbone rather than overall chain length. Among the anthracyclines engineered in this study were compounds with (i) more superior activity than R1128 against the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and (ii) inhibitory activity against glucose-6-phosphate translocase, an attractive target for the treatment of Type II diabetes. (+info)
Crystal structure of a bacterial type III polyketide synthase and enzymatic control of reactive polyketide intermediates.
In bacteria, a structurally simple type III polyketide synthase (PKS) known as 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthlene synthase (THNS) catalyzes the iterative condensation of five CoA-linked malonyl units to form a pentaketide intermediate. THNS subsequently catalyzes dual intramolecular Claisen and aldol condensations of this linear intermediate to produce the fused ring tetrahydroxynaphthalene (THN) skeleton. The type III PKS-catalyzed polyketide extension mechanism, utilizing a conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad in an internal active site cavity, is fairly well understood. However, the mechanistic basis for the unusual production of THN and dual cyclization of its malonyl-primed pentaketide is obscure. Here we present the first bacterial type III PKS crystal structure, that of Streptomyces coelicolor THNS, and identify by mutagenesis, structural modeling, and chemical analysis the unexpected catalytic participation of an additional THNS-conserved cysteine residue in facilitating malonyl-primed polyketide extension beyond the triketide stage. The resulting new mechanistic model, involving the use of additional cysteines to alter and steer polyketide reactivity, may generally apply to other PKS reaction mechanisms, including those catalyzed by iterative type I and II PKS enzymes. Our crystal structure also reveals an unanticipated novel cavity extending into the "floor" of the traditional active site cavity, providing the first plausible structural and mechanistic explanation for yet another unusual THNS catalytic activity: its previously inexplicable extra polyketide extension step when primed with a long acyl starter. This tunnel allows for selective expansion of available active site cavity volume by sequestration of aliphatic starter-derived polyketide tails, and further suggests another distinct protection mechanism involving maintenance of a linear polyketide conformation. (+info)
Characterization of SLAC: a small laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor with unprecedented activity.
Laccases and other four-copper oxidases are usually constructed of three domains: Domains one and three house the copper sites, and the second domain often helps form a substrate-binding cleft. In contrast to this arrangement, the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor was found to encode a small, four-copper oxidase that lacks the second domain. This protein is representative of a new family of enzymes--the two-domain laccases. Disruption of the corresponding gene abrogates laccase activity in the growth media. We have recombinantly expressed this enzyme, called SLAC, in Escherichia coli and characterized it. The enzyme binds four copper ions/monomer, and UV-visible absorption and EPR measurements confirm that the conserved type 1 copper site and trinuclear cluster are intact. We also report the first known paramagnetic NMR spectrum for the trinuclear copper cluster of a protein from the laccase family. The enzyme is highly stable, retaining activity as a dimer in denaturing gels after boiling and SDS treatment. The activity of the enzyme against 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) peaks at an unprecedentedly high pH (9.4), whereas the activity against ferrocyanide decreases with pH. SLAC binds negatively charged substrates more tightly than positively charged or uncharged molecules. (+info)
Sensing and responding to diverse extracellular signals? Analysis of the sensor kinases and response regulators of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).
Streptomyces coelicolor is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that undergoes a complex developmental life cycle. The genome sequence of this organism was recently completed and has revealed the presence of over 60 sigma factors and a multitude of other transcriptional regulators, with a significant number of these being putative two-component signal transduction proteins. The authors have used the criteria established by Hoch and co-workers (Fabret et al., 1999, J Bacteriol 181, 1975-1983) to identify sensor kinase and response regulator genes encoded within the S. coelicolor genome. This analysis has revealed the presence of 84 sensor kinase genes, 67 of which lie adjacent to genes encoding response regulators. This strongly suggests that these paired genes encode two-component systems. In addition there are 13 orphan response regulators encoded in the genome, several of which have already been characterized and are implicated in development and antibiotic production, and 17 unpaired and as yet uncharacterized sensor kinases. This article attempts to infer useful information from sequence analysis and reviews what is currently known about the two-component systems, unpaired sensor kinases and orphan response regulators of S. coelicolor from both published reports and the authors' own unpublished data. (+info)
An experimental evaluation of a loop versus a reference design for two-channel microarrays.
MOTIVATION: Despite theoretical arguments that so-called 'loop designs' for two-channel DNA microarray experiments are more efficient, biologists continue to use 'reference designs'. We describe two sets of microarray experiments with RNA from two different biological systems (TPA-stimulated mammalian cells and Streptomyces coelicolor). In each case, both a loop and a reference design were used with the same RNA preparations with the aim of studying their relative efficiency. RESULTS: The results of these experiments show that (1) the loop design attains a much higher precision than the reference design, (2) multiplicative spot effects are a large source of variability, and if they are not accounted for in the mathematical model, for example, by taking log-ratios or including spot effects, then the model will perform poorly. The first result is reinforced by a simulation study. Practical recommendations are given on how simple loop designs can be extended to more realistic experimental designs and how standard statistical methods allow the experimentalist to use and interpret the results from loop designs in practice. AVAILABILITY: The data and R code are available at http://exgen.ma.umist.ac.uk CONTACT: [email protected] (+info)
PEDRo: a database for storing, searching and disseminating experimental proteomics data.
BACKGROUND: Proteomics is rapidly evolving into a high-throughput technology, in which substantial and systematic studies are conducted on samples from a wide range of physiological, developmental, or pathological conditions. Reference maps from 2D gels are widely circulated. However, there is, as yet, no formally accepted standard representation to support the sharing of proteomics data, and little systematic dissemination of comprehensive proteomic data sets. RESULTS: This paper describes the design, implementation and use of a Proteome Experimental Data Repository (PEDRo), which makes comprehensive proteomics data sets available for browsing, searching and downloading. It is also serves to extend the debate on the level of detail at which proteomics data should be captured, the sorts of facilities that should be provided by proteome data management systems, and the techniques by which such facilities can be made available. CONCLUSIONS: The PEDRo database provides access to a collection of comprehensive descriptions of experimental data sets in proteomics. Not only are these data sets interesting in and of themselves, they also provide a useful early validation of the PEDRo data model, which has served as a starting point for the ongoing standardisation activity through the Proteome Standards Initiative of the Human Proteome Organisation. (+info)
A novel zinc-containing alpha-keto ester reductase from actinomycete: an approach based on protein chemistry and bioinformatics.
We have achieved the purification of an alpha-keto ester reductase (SCKER) from S. coelicolor A3(2) whole cells. SCKER proved to be a homotetramer of 132 kDa containing one equivalent of zinc ion per subunit. The enzyme differed from other alpha-keto ester reductases from microorganisms with regard to subunit structure and metal ion dependency. From a computer search using the protein data banks, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of SCKER was consistent with that of a possible zinc containing alcohol dehydrogenase in S. coelicolor A3(2). None of three hypothetical proteins of S. coelocor A3(2) having a high homology sequence with those of already purified alpha-keto ester reductases from S. thermocyaneoviolaceus [Yamaguchi, H., et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66, 588-597 (2002)] was identical with that of SCKER. (+info)
The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation.
The prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster (pig cluster) from two strains of Serratia (S. marcescens ATCC 274 and Serratia sp. ATCC 39006) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts. Sequence analysis of the respective pig clusters revealed 14 ORFs in S. marcescens ATCC 274 and 15 ORFs in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. In each Serratia species, predicted gene products showed similarity to polyketide synthases (PKSs), non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the Red proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Comparisons between the two Serratia pig clusters and the red cluster from Str. coelicolor A3(2) revealed some important differences. A modified scheme for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin, based on the pathway recently suggested for the synthesis of undecylprodigiosin, is proposed. The distribution of the pig cluster within several Serratia sp. isolates is demonstrated and the presence of cryptic clusters in some strains shown. The pig cluster of Serratia marcescens ATCC 274 is flanked by cueR and copA homologues and this configuration is demonstrated in several S. marcescens strains, whilst these genes are contiguous in strains lacking the pig cluster. (+info)