(1/61) Immune function in ankylosing spondylitics and their relatives: influence of disease and HLA B27.
So as to distinguish the separate influences of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and possible HLA B27 associated immune response genes on immune response patterns, a battery of immunological tests were performed on fourteen patients with AS and their first-degree relatives. Previously unrecognized AS was detected by clinical and radiological means. Individuals with ankylosing spondylitis had significantly higher serum IgG and IgA concentrations than both their B27 positive and B27 negative relatives. B27 positive relatives had significantly lower phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) lymphocyte transformations than B27 negative relatives (P less than 0.01), while there was no difference between the ankylosing spondylitic and B27 positive groups. Antibody titres to Streptokinase/Streptodornase were significantly higher in the B27 positive individuals, with or without AS, than their B27 negative relatives (P less than 0.005 and P less than 0.02 respectively). These results show that serum immunoglobulin differences were associated with disease, while differences in PHA stimulation and varidase antibody titres were associated with the B27 antigen. These findings may indicate the presence of HLA associated immune response genes including those involved with reactions to a particular antigenic component of Streptokinase/Streptodornase. (+info)
(2/61) Effect of viral and bacterial pneumonias on cell-mediated immunity in humans.
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was assessed during infection and after convalescence in 12 patients with influenza pneumonia and 10 patients with bacterial pneumonia. The patients with influenza pneumonia had a marked impairment of skin test reactivity, and their lymphocytes showed a diminished response to phytohemagglutinin and streptokinase-streptodornase stimulation in vitro. Suppression of CMI was related to the severity of the pneumonia. Patients with bacterial pneumonia showed as great a suppression of the response to phytohemagglutinin and streptokinase-streptodornase as the patients with viral pneumonia. All parameters of CMI returned to normal in both groups after convalescence. The depression of CMI could not be related to a decrease in the number of thymus-derived lymphocytes or to serum-suppressive factors in these patients. (+info)
(3/61) Cell-mediated immunity in the rheumatoid diseases. I. Skin testing and mitogenic responses in sero-negative arthritides.
Cellular immunity has been investigated in patients with various kinds of sero-negative arthritis. The incidence of cutaneous response to recall antigen streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD), and the ability to mount a primary cutaneous response to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) have been examined in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. The results were not significantly different from normal. In vitro lymphocyte transformation in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) has been measured using peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and Reiter's disease. In comparison with a control group, significantly reduced responses were found to a low dose of PHA in the ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter disease patients. Significant increase in response occurred to a high dose of PHA, in patients with psoriatic arthritis and Reiter's disease, and to PWM in Reiter's disease patients. The in vitro results in the ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and Reiter's disease patients suggest some abnormality in the T-cell population in sero-negative arthritis. (+info)
(4/61) Stimulation of lymphocytes by antigen in microplate cultures; absence of an effect of transfer factor in vitro.
The best conditions for the optimum stimulation of human leucocytes by antigens, including protein purified derivative (PPD), streptokinase-streptodornase varidase (SKSD) and tetanus toxoid have been studied in microplate cultures. The leucocytes of each donor have their own characteristic response to antigen which depends on the culturing conditions such as antigen concentrations, cell concentrations and the time of measuring the rate of DNA synthesis. Thus, no conditions provide a universal optimum for antigen stimulation in vitro. Leucocyte dialysates, i.e. potential transfer factors, have been prepared from donors, who between them are strongly positive to the antigens PPD, SKSD, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Keyhole limpet haemocyanin. In contrast to some previous reports these leucocyte dialysates had no effect on the thymidine incorporation by leucocytes grown in the presence of these antigens. It is suggested that the selection of optimal conditions for the response to antigen may have obscured the effect of any non-specific enhancement of reactivity b lyeucocyte dialysates. (+info)
(5/61) Effect of prednisolone on the leukocyte counts of ponies and on the reactivity of lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo.
Treatment of ponies with a single dose of prednisolone markedly reduced the number of blood lymphocytes. A decrease of the number of eosinophils was also observed. In contrast, the number of neutrophils significantly increased. These profound changes were temporary and returned to the pretreatment level within 48 h. The number of monocytes did not show any of the significant changes post-prednisolone treatment. The reactivity of the blood lymphocytes of these ponies, in vitro, to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or streptokinase-strepto-dornase (SK-SD) was measured by incorporation of (3-H)thymidine by deoxyribonucleic acid of lymphocytes. The ponies' blood lymphocytes responded very well to PHA stimulation. The incorporation of (3-H)thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid of the PHA-stimulated lymphocytes was 14 times greater than incorporation of the nonstimulated lymphocytes. SK-SD-stimulated lymphocytes incorporated only three times more (3-H)thymidine than nonstimulated lymphocytes. There was no significant difference in stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA or SK-SD before or after the prednisolone treatment. However, a significant decrease in the dermal response to the homologous antigen after this treatment in sensitive ponies was observed. (+info)
(6/61) Interaction of leukocyte chemotactic factors with the cell surface. I. Chemotactic factor-induced changes in human granulocyte surface charge.
The negative surface charge of human granulocytes was diminished after incubation with the chemotactic factors C5a, dialyzable transfer factor, and the enzymes kallikrein and plasminogen activator. No such change was observed after incubation with human IgG, albumin, horeseradish peroxidase, or a mixture of prekallikrein and plaminogen proactivator. Hydrocortisone inhibited the effect of C5a upon granulocyte surface charge and inhibited its chemotactic activity, suggesting that steroids act at the cell surface. The chemotactic inhibitors cholchicine and cytochalsin B had no effect upon granulocyte surface charge, consistent with their presumed effect upon microtubules and microfilaments, respectively. The data suggest that the decrease in cell surface charge may be a preerequiste for normal cell movement. (+info)
(7/61) Association of HL-A 5 and immune responsiveness in vitro to streptococcal antigens.
Lymphocytes, from randomly selected individuals having normal immune function, when incubated in vitro with varying concentrations of streptococcal antigens, responded in three ways: (a) response over the entire antigen concentration range, i.e., responders; (b) low response to only the highest antigen concentrations; and (c) no response at any antigen concentration. Frequency distribution analysis of these groups indicated that a significant association occurred between the ability to respond and HL-A 5. (+info)
(8/61) Practical aerobic membrane filtration blood culture technique: clinical blood culture trial.
During the course of preliminary clinical trials of an improved membrane filter blood culture system, filter plugging produced by a gelling of the lysing solution was observed when the patients had high leukocyte counts. A solution of streptokinase-streptodornase (Varidase, Lederle Laboratories) dissolved or prevented the gel and permitted rapid filtration without plugging. With streptokinase-streptodornase incorporated in the filtration procedure, a comparison of several culture systems was carried out on 176 blood cultures. Brucella broth with and without sodium polyanethol sulfonate, a prereduced osmotically stabilized broth, pour plates, and an improved aerobic membrane filter system were compared. The membrane filter system yielded 29 of the total of 37 positive cultures, far surpassing all other systems. Eight of these cultures were detected first by the filter technique, and 13 were positive only in this system. Nineteen of the 37 positive cultures were from patients on antimicrobial agents. Fourteen of these were detected by the filter, twice the number detected by any of the other systems. (+info)