Intestinal lesions associated with disseminated candidiasis in an experimental animal model. (1/45)

In human patients, disseminated candidiasis, a life-threatening disease for immunocompromised patients, is often associated with intestinal lesions. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppressed gnotobiotic (IGB) piglets orally inoculated with wild-type Candida albicans developed extensive intestinal lesions and disseminated infection. Severe ulceration of the ileal mucosa was observed overlying regions of colonization and necrosis of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Despite the high susceptibility of IGB piglets to many microbial pathogens, an avirulent mutant strain of C. albicans failed to produce intestinal lesions and exhibited poor dissemination, demonstrating that these effects required virulent organisms. It is likely that in IGB piglets, as in human patients, intestinal lesions provide the mechanism for escape of C. albicans from the gastrointestinal tract. Multinucleated giant cells containing fungal organisms were observed within lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, and as with other pathogens, such cells could provide a mechanism for dissemination of C. albicans.  (+info)

Regression of blood vessels in the ventral velum of Xenopus laevis Daudin during metamorphosis: light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic study. (2/45)

Structural changes of the ventral velum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles from late prometamorphosis (stage 58) to the height of metamorphic climax (stage 62) were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Special emphasis was given to the blood vessel regression. Early changes of velar capillaries were formation of luminal and abluminal endothelial cell processes, vacuolation, and cytoplasmic and nuclear chromatin condensation. At the height of metamorphic climax, transmission electron microscopy revealed apoptotic endothelial cells with nuclear condensation and fragmentation, intraluminal bulging of rounded endothelial cells which narrowed or even plugged the capillary, and different stages of endothelial cell detachment ('shedding') into the vessel lumen. These changes explain the 'miniaturisation' of the velar microvascular bed as well as the typical features found in resin-casts of regressing velar vessels which have been observed in a previous scanning electron microscopy study of the ventral velum.  (+info)

Trophic morphology of five benthic-feeding fish species of a tropical floodplain. (3/45)

This study describes the morphology of the digestive apparatus and the size and organic content of the ingested food of five species of benthic-feeding fishes (Prochilodus lineatus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Loricariichthys platymetopon, Trachydoras paraguayensis e Iheringichthys labrosus). The samples were taken in the floodplain of the up Parana River in February and August 1991. The results suggested that these species have different mouth, teeth, gill rakers, stomach and intestine length. These morphologic characteristics were related with the type, size and nutritional quality of the food ingested. Although these species feed on the bottom, the morphologic divergences probably explain the differences in diet.  (+info)

Craniodental variation among Macaques (Macaca), nonhuman primates. (4/45)

BACKGROUND: In terms of structure and function, the skull is one of the most complicated organs in the body. It is also one of the most important parts in terms of developmental and evolutionary origins. This complexity makes it difficult to obtain evolutionary assessments if, as is usually the case with fossils, only part of the skull is available. For this reason this study involves a set of comparisons whereby the smallest functional units are studied first, and these built up, through a triple-nested hierarchical design, into more complex anatomical regions and eventually into the skull-as-a-whole. This design has been applied to macaques (Macaca) in order to reveal patterns of variation at the different levels. The profiles of such variation have been obtained both within and between species. This has lead to a search for the skull parts that have undergone similar selection pressures during evolution and comparable development patterns in both ontogeny and phylogeny. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis (Principal Components) was used to obtain these profiles of species and sex separations based on 77 cranial variables from 11 species of macaques. The results showed that 7 functional units could be aggregated into three functionally reasonable anatomical regions on the basis of similarities in profiles. These were: the masticatory apparatus containing mandible, lower teeth and upper teeth, the face as a whole combining maxilla (actually lower face) and upper face, and the cranium as a whole involving cranium and calvaria. Twenty-six variables were finally selected for analyzing the morphology of the whole skull. This last showed an overall profile similar to that revealed in the masticatory apparatus but also contained additional information pertaining to individual species and species-groups separations. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides a model for carrying out analysis of species separations and sex variation simultaneously. Through this design it seems possible to see cranio-dental elements that may result from similar developmental processes, have similar functional adaptations, and show an appropriately integrated structure morphologically. This study also implies that the biological information drawn from part of skull alone, e.g. as in studies of incomplete fossils may provide misleading information.  (+info)

Early Hedgehog signaling from neural to oral epithelium organizes anterior craniofacial development. (5/45)

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays multiple roles in the development of the anterior craniofacial skeleton. We show that the earliest function of Hh is indirect, regulating development of the stomodeum, or oral ectoderm. A subset of post-migratory neural crest cells, that gives rise to the cartilages of the anterior neurocranium and the pterygoid process of the palatoquadrate in the upper jaw, condenses upon the upper or roof layer of the stomodeal ectoderm in the first pharyngeal arch. We observe that in mutants for the Hh co-receptor smoothened (smo) the condensation of this specific subset of crest cells fails, and expression of several genes is lost in the stomodeal ectoderm. Genetic mosaic analyses with smo mutants show that for the crest cells to condense the crucial target tissue receiving the Hh signal is the stomodeum, not the crest. Blocking signaling with cyclopamine reveals that the crucial stage, for both crest condensation and stomodeal marker expression, is at the end of gastrulation--some eight to ten hours before crest cells migrate to associate with the stomodeum. Two Hh genes, shh and twhh, are expressed in midline tissue at this stage, and we show using mosaics that for condensation and skeletogenesis only the ventral brain primordium, and not the prechordal plate, is an important Hh source. Thus, we propose that Hh signaling from the brain primordium is required for proper specification of the stomodeum and the stomodeum, in turn, promotes condensation of a subset of neural crest cells that will form the anterior neurocranial and upper jaw cartilage.  (+info)

A monosynaptic pathway links the vestibular nuclei and masseter muscle motoneurons in rats. (6/45)

Physiological evidence indicates that vestibular signals modulate the activity of motoneurons innervating the masseter muscle. Recently, experiments using transynaptic retrograde transport of pseudorabies virus provided anatomical evidence that many neurons concentrated in the dorsomedial part of the parvicellular division of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVePC) and the caudal prepositus hypoglossi (PH) provide inputs to motoneurons innervating the lower third of the superficial layer of the masseter muscle. However, it was not clear whether this vestibulo-trigeminal projection was monosynaptic or polysynaptic. The present study sought to determine whether neurons in the MVePC or PH project directly to motoneurons controlling the masseter muscle in rats. For this purpose, an anterograde tracer (biotinylated dextran amine, BDA) was injected into vestibular nuclei (mainly MVePC) or PH and a retrograde tracer (the beta-subunit of cholera toxin, b-CT) was injected into the masseter muscle ipsilateral or contralateral to the BDA injection site. Following injections of BDA into the vestibular nuclei or PH, anterogradely labeled axon terminals were observed bilaterally in the motor trigeminal nucleus (Mo5), particularly in the ventral, medial, and lateral portions of the nucleus; projections to dorsal Mo5 were sparse. In addition, retrogradely labeled motoneurons were located in the ventral and lateral portions of the ipsilateral Mo5. Moreover, anterogradely labeled terminals were observed to be in close proximity to motoneurons in the Mo5 that were retrogradely labeled from b-CT injections into the masseter muscle. This study provides direct evidence that a monosynaptic pathway exists between the MVePC and PH and masseter motoneurons.  (+info)

Masticatory muscle thickness, bite force, and occlusal contacts in young children with unilateral posterior crossbite. (7/45)

Few investigations have evaluated the characteristics of functional and structural malocclusion in young children. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the ultrasonographic thickness of the masseter and anterior portion of the temporalis muscles, the maximum bite force, and the number of occlusal contacts in children with normal occlusion and unilateral crossbite, in the primary and early mixed dentition. Forty-nine children (26 males and 23 females) was divided into four groups: primary-normal occlusion (PNO), mean (PNO) age 58.67 months; primary-crossbite (PCB), mean age 60.50 months; mixed-normal occlusion (MNO), mean age 72.85 months; and mixed-crossbite (MCB), mean age 71.91 months. Thickness was evaluated with the muscles at rest and during maximal clenching, and comparison was made between the right and left side (normal occlusion), and between the normal and crossbite side (crossbite). The results were analysed using Pearson's correlation, paired and unpaired t-test, and Mann-Whitney ranked sum test. The anterior temporalis thickness at rest was statistically thicker for the crossbite side than the normal side in the MCB group (P = 0.0106). A statistical difference in bite force and the number of occlusal contacts was observed between the MNO and MCB groups, with greater values for the MNO subjects (P < 0.05). Masseter muscle thickness showed a positive correlation with bite force, but the anterior temporalis thickness in the PCB and MCB groups was not related to bite force. Masticatory muscle thickness and bite force did not present a significant correlation with occlusal contacts, weight, or height. It was concluded that functional and anatomical variables differ in the early mixed dentition in the presence of a malocclusion and early diagnosis and treatment planning should be considered.  (+info)

The stomatognathic system in the elderly. Useful information for the medical practitioner. (8/45)

Aging per se has a small effect on oral tissues and functions, and most changes are secondary to extrinsic factors. The most common oral diseases in the elderly are increased tooth loss due to periodontal disease and dental caries, and oral precancer/cancer. There are many general, medical and socioeconomic factors related to dental disease (ie, disease, medications, cost, educational background, social class). Retaining less than 20 teeth is related to chewing difficulties. Tooth loss and the associated reduced masticatory performance lead to a diet poor in fibers, rich in saturated fat and cholesterols, related to cardiovascular disease, stroke, and gastrointestinal cancer. The presence of occlusal tooth contacts is also important for swallowing. Xerostomia is common in the elderly, causing pain and discomfort, and is usually related to disease and medication. Oral health parameters (ie, periodontal disease, tooth loss, poor oral hygiene) have also been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, bacterial pneumonia, and increased mortality, but the results are not yet conclusive, because of the many confounding factors. Oral health affects quality of life of the elderly, because of its impact on eating, comfort, appearance and socializing. On the other hand, impaired general condition deteriorates oral condition. It is therefore important for the medical practitioner to exchange information and cooperate with a dentist in order to improve patient care.  (+info)