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(1/135) Thalidomide for the treatment of esophageal aphthous ulcers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease AIDS Clinical Trials Group.

A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide for treating esophageal aphthous ulceration in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Twenty-four HIV-infected patients with biopsy-confirmed aphthous ulceration of the esophagus were randomly assigned to receive either oral thalidomide, 200 mg/day, or oral placebo daily for 4 weeks. Eight (73%) of 11 patients randomized to receive thalidomide had complete healing of aphthous ulcers at the 4-week endoscopic evaluation, compared with 3 (23%) of 13 placebo-randomized patients (odds ratio, 13.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-823.75; P=.033). Odynophagia and impaired eating ability caused by esophageal aphthae were improved markedly by thalidomide treatment. Adverse events among patients receiving thalidomide included somnolence (4 patients), rash (2 patients), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (3 patients). Thalidomide is effective in healing aphthous ulceration of the esophagus in patients infected with HIV.  (+info)

(2/135) Gammadelta T cells in Behcet's disease (BD) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS).

The immunopathogenesis of BD is believed to be T cell-mediated. The objective of this study was to characterize the activation stage and cytokine profile of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), with particular emphasis on gammadelta T cells. Venous blood was collected from 20 patients with BD, and for comparison, from 11 patients with RAS and from 15 healthy controls. Both the expression of activation markers (CD25, CD29, CD40 ligand, CD69 and HLA-DR) on freshly isolated PBL and T cell subsets, and the expression of intracellular cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)) on mitogen-stimulated PBL and T cell subsets were analysed by double immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. Significantly decreased proportion of alphabeta T cells and increased proportion of gammadelta T cells, CD56+ cells and CD8+ gammadelta T cells were found in BD patients compared with healthy controls. This was also seen to a lesser extent in patients with RAS. Furthermore, in BD a significantly increased proportion of the gammadelta T cell population expressed CD69 and high levels of CD29 and were induced to produce IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha compared with healthy controls. In contrast, an increased percentage of gammadelta T cells from RAS patients was induced to produce IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha. These results indicate that in BD, activated gammadelta T cells, capable of producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, are present in peripheral blood, suggesting that gammadelta T cells are dynamic and may be regulating immunopathogenic events.  (+info)

(3/135) An adult case with an abnormal right ventricular structure causing intraventricular pressure gradient and a history of aphthous stomatitis and thrombophlebitis.

We report a 50-year-old man with a right ventricular structure causing an intraventricular pressure gradient. He had been diagnosed as vasculo-Behcet with a history of aphthous stomatitis and thrombophlebitis. He had also been suffering from atrial flutter and mild right-side heart failure. Echocardiography showed that there was an abnormal structure attached to the right ventricular free wall and protruding into the cavity, and that it caused the pressure gradient estimated to be approximately 19 mmHg. Chest X-ray computed tomography demonstrated that the structure was partially calcified. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted the structure separating the right ventricle into two chambers. Angiographic study revealed a markedly enlarged right atrium and a filling defect at the mid-portion of the right ventricle, which divided the right ventricular cavity into two parts. Hemodynamic study showed a slightly elevated right atrial pressure (mean 7 mmHg) and a peak-to-peak intraventricular pressure difference of 18 mmHg in the right ventricle. The diastolic pressure tracing of the right ventricular low pressure chamber showed a 'dip and plateau' pattern. Although the pathological features of the abnormal right ventricular structure in this case were not fully clarified, abnormal muscle bundle and/or endocardial fibrosis, which were reported to be associated with Behcet's disease, may have contributed to its generation.  (+info)

(4/135) Acute phase proteins and C9 in patients with Behcet's syndrome and aphthous ulcers.

Estimation of the concentration of C9, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha1-antitrypsin in forty sera from patients with Behcet's syndrome and recurrent oral ulcers showed significantly increased amounts of C9 and CRP in Behcet's syndrome. The concentration of C9 was also significantly raised in recurrent oral ulceration, though to a lesser extent than in Behcet's syndrome. The assay C9 and CRP might be useful in the differential diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome, especially from recurrent oral ulcers. It is suggested that during epithelial inflammation in recurrent oral ulcers some of the acute phase proteins are increased and in some patients these may modulate the immunological mechanism in such a way as to induce a transition from focal oral ulceration to the multifocal Behcet's syndrome.  (+info)

(5/135) Management of aphthous ulcers.

Aphthous ulcers are a common and painful problem. Benign aphthae tend to be small (less than 1 cm in diameter) and shallow. Aphthous ulcers that occur in conjunction with symptoms of uveitis, genital ulcerations, conjunctivitis, arthritis, fever or adenopathy should prompt a search for a serious etiology. The lack of clarity regarding the etiology of aphthous ulcers has resulted in treatments that are largely empiric. These treatments include antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, immune modulators, anesthetics and alternative (herbal) remedies.  (+info)

(6/135) Thalidomide in low intermittent doses does not prevent recurrence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated aphthous ulcers.

A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in reduced, intermittent doses for preventing recurrences of oral and esophageal aphthous ulcers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Forty-nine HIV-infected patients whose ulcers previously had healed as a result of thalidomide therapy were randomly assigned to receive either 100 mg of oral thalidomide or placebo 3 times per week for 6 months. Ulcers recurred in 14 (61%) of 23 thalidomide-randomized patients, compared with 11 (42%) of 26 placebo-randomized patients, with no significant difference in the median time to recurrence of ulcers (P=.221). There were no changes in plasma levels of HIV RNA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and soluble TNF receptor II at the time of ulcer recurrence. Adverse events among patients treated with thalidomide included neutropenia (5 patients), rash (5 patients), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (3 patients). Thalidomide in lower intermittent doses is ineffective at preventing recurrence of aphthous ulcers in HIV-infected persons.  (+info)

(7/135) Cardiac and great vessel thrombosis in Behcet's disease.

Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing systemic vasculitis in which orogenital ulceration is a prominent feature. The disease affects many systems and causes hypercoagulability. We present a 27-year-old male patient who exhibited widespread great vessel thrombosis including right atrial and ventricular thrombi in the setting of right-sided infectious endocarditis and orogenital aphthous ulcerations and erythema nodosum due to BD. We reviewed the enigmatic prothrombotic state of BD, and discuss our prior experiences in this field.  (+info)

(8/135) Tobacco use and oral disease.

Tobacco use is a risk factor for oral cancer, oral mucosal lesions, periodontal disease and impaired healing after periodontal treatment, gingival recession, and coronal and root caries. Available evidence suggests that the risks of oral diseases increase with greater use of tobacco and that quitting smoking can result in decreased risk. The magnitude of the effect of tobacco on the occurrence of oral diseases is high, with users having many times the risk of non-users. There is a clear benefit to quitting tobacco use. The risks of oral cancer and periodontal disease decline as time from cessation increases, and some oral mucosal lesions may resolve with cessation of smokeless tobacco use. Smoking accounts for half of periodontal disease and three-fourths of oral cancers in the United States. Because tobacco accounts for such a high proportion of these diseases, comprehensive tobacco control policies are required to make progress in reducing the burden of tobacco-related oral diseases. Effective treatments to prevent tobacco use and increase cessation are available and need greater implementation. Dental practices may provide a uniquely effective setting for tobacco prevention and cessation.  (+info)