A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration.
2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing. (+info)
Phase I study of transforming growth factor-beta3 mouthwashes for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.
The purpose of this study was to establish the safety and tolerability of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3; CGP 46614) mouthwashes intended for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Local effects were especially analyzed by objective and subjective measurements of mucositis. Secondary aims were analysis of potential systemic exposure and development of anti-TGF-beta3-antibodies. Eleven breast cancer patients received chemotherapy with 1.5 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v., 80 mg/m2 epirubicin i.v., and 1.0 g/m2 5-fluorouracil i.v. (n = 8) or 1.6 g/m2 carboplatin i.v., 480 mg/m2 thiotepa i.v., and 6 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v. divided over 4 days (n = 3). TGF-beta3 mouthwashes (10 ml; provided by Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) were administered for 4 days, four times a day, starting 1 day before chemotherapy. The dose was escalated in following patients from 25 microg/ml (n = 3) to 50 microg/ml (n = 3) and 100 microg/ml (n = 5). Clinically, the mucosa was scored objectively and according to WHO criteria. The percentage of viable oral epithelial cells was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion. Morphology of cells was assessed in buccal smears. Plasma samples were collected for determination of TGF-beta3 levels and anti-TGF-beta3-antibodies. Adverse events were recorded by the patient in a diary. Mouthwashes with TGF-beta3 were well tolerated. Three patients scored for mucositis > grade 0 (WHO grading criteria). The percentage of viable oral epithelial cells in patients treated with 1.5 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v., 80 mg/m2 epirubicin i.v., and 1.0 g/m2 5-fluorouracil i.v. was stable, whereas in patients treated with 1.6 g/m2 carboplatin i.v., 480 mg/m2 thiotepa i.v., and 6 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v. divided over 4 days, an increase was observed. The morphology of buccal cells showed a transient shift from mature to immature cells in the first week. Neither systemic absorption of TGF-beta3 nor development of TGF-beta3-antibodies was observed. TGF-beta3 mouthwashes were well tolerated and deserve further study in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis. (+info)
Cytokine mRNA expression in lesions in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.
Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays were developed to measure feline interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 (p35 & p40); gamma interferon (IFN-gamma); and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA concentrations in biopsies of feline oral mucosa. Biopsies were collected from 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (diseased) prior to each cat receiving one of four treatments. In 23 cases replicate biopsies were collected 3 months after treatment commenced. Biopsies were also analyzed from 11 cats without clinical disease (nondiseased). Expression of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-gamma was detected in most nondiseased biopsies, while IL-6 was detected in a minority, and IL-4 and IL-5 were both undetectable. Compared to nondiseased cats, the diseased population showed a significant increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-gamma. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was unchanged and was only detected in one case. No significant relationship was demonstrable between the change in relative expression of specific cytokine mRNA and the change in clinical severity of the local mucosal lesions over the treatment period. The results demonstrate that the normal feline oral mucosa is biased towards a predominantly (Th) type 1 profile of cytokine expression and that during the development of lesions seen in feline chronic gingivostomatitis there is a shift in the cytokine profile from a type 1 to a mixed type 1 and type 2 response. (+info)
Phase II trial of docetaxel, cisplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as induction for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of a 4-day regimen of docetaxel, cisplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (TPFL4) in patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty previously untreated patients with stage III or IV SCCHN and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group functional status of 2 or less were treated with TPFL4. Postchemotherapy support included prophylactic growth factors and antibiotics. Patients who achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) to three cycles of TPFL4 received definitive twice-daily radiation therapy. The primary end points were toxicity and response to TPFL4. RESULTS: Eighty-five cycles were administered to 30 patients. The major acute toxicities to TPFL4 were mucositis and nausea. One patient died of neutropenic sepsis during therapy. Additional major toxicities were neutropenia, anorexia, nephropathy, neuropathy, and diarrhea. Fourteen percent of all cycles were associated with hospitalization for toxicity. The overall clinical response rate to TPFL4 was 93%, with 63% CRs and 30% PRs. Primary tumor site clinical and pathologic response rates were 93% and 68%, respectively. CONCLUSION: TPFL4 has an acceptable toxicity profile in good-performance-status patients. Modification of the 5-day TPFL regimen (TPFL5: shorter chemotherapy infusion time, earlier intervention with growth factors and antibiotics) led to fewer episodes of febrile neutropenia and hospitalization. Response rates to TPFL justify further evaluation of combinations of these agents in the context of formal clinical trials. (+info)
Analysis of factors that correlate with mucositis in recipients of autologous and allogeneic stem-cell transplants.
PURPOSE: To identify predictors of oral mucositis and gastrointestinal toxicity after high-dose therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mucositis and gastrointestinal toxicity were prospectively evaluated in 202 recipients of high-dose therapy and autologous or allogeneic stem-cell rescue. Of 10 outcome variables, three were selected as end points: the peak value for the University of Nebraska Oral Assessment Score (MUCPEAK), the duration of parenteral nutritional support, and the peak daily output of diarrhea. Potential covariates included patient age, sex, diagnosis, treatment protocol, transplantation type, stem-cell source, and rate of neutrophil recovery. The three selected end points were also examined for correlation with blood infections and transplant-related mortality. RESULTS: A diagnosis of leukemia, use of total body irradiation, allogeneic transplantation, and delayed neutrophil recovery were associated with increased oral mucositis and longer parenteral nutritional support. No factors were associated with diarrhea. Also, moderate to severe oral mucositis (MUCPEAK > or = 18 on a scale of 8 to 24) was correlated with blood infections and transplant-related mortality: 60% of patients with MUCPEAK > or = 18 had positive blood cultures versus 30% of patients with MUCPEAK less than 18 (P =.001); 24% of patients with MUCPEAK > or = 8 died during the transplantation procedure versus 4% of patients with MUCPEAK less than 18 (P =.001). CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal toxicity is a major cause of transplant-related morbidity and mortality, emphasizing the need for corrective strategies. The peak oral mucositis score and the duration of parenteral nutritional support are useful indices of gastrointestinal toxicity because these end points are correlated with clinically significant events, including blood infections and treatment-related mortality. (+info)
Prophylaxis and treatment of chemo- and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis - are there new strategies?
Oral mucositis is a major dose-limiting toxic effect of intensive cancer chemotherapy. Oral complications may lead to dose reduction or delay in further cancer treatment. Mucositis can be caused directly by cytotoxic effects and indirectly by sustained neutropenia after cytostatic therapy. An impaired mucosal barrier predisposes to life-threatening septic complications during aplasia. The prevalence of an oral focus in febrile neutropenia has been reported in up to 30% of cases and also reduces quality of life. The basic strategies aim at pain relief and prevention of bacterial and fungal infectious complications. However, no effective causal prophylaxis or treatment of oral mucositis is widely accepted. The introduction of cytokines, eg granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for oral mucositis may be particularly effective and offer a new and hopeful approach. At present, the optimal growth factor, best schedule, effective dosage and best mode of application is not known. (+info)
Outbreak of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia in allogenic bone marrow transplant patients: role of severe neutropenia and mucositis.
From March 1997 through November 1997, 8 allogenic bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients developed Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia on the hematology service at UCLA Medical Center (Los Angeles). Five of these patients had undergone transplantation during the same hospitalization that S. maltophilia bacteremia was detected (case patients). Compared with 7 concurrently hospitalized allogenic BMT patients (control patients), the 5 case patients were more likely to have been hospitalized in room A (P=.045), to have severe neutropenia on the culture date (P=.028), to have a longer duration of severe neutropenia (P=.05), to have severe mucositis (P=. 028), and to have received total parenteral nutrition (P=.028). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that 2 of 3 isolates from case patients hospitalized in room A were identical. In allogenic BMT patients, severe neutropenia and severe mucositis may promote infection with S. maltophilia by impairing host defenses. (+info)
Sex differences in fluorouracil-induced stomatitis.
PURPOSE: A meta-analysis of six North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) trials involving patients receiving their first ever fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy was undertaken to explore the association of sex with reports of the incidence and severity of stomatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained on a total of 731 patients (402 men and 329 women). Comparisons of incidence and severity rates and average stomatitis across sex were performed using standard binomial testing and t tests, respectively. Logistic regression analysis and a weighted analysis using data summarized to study level served as evidence of cross-validation. RESULTS: Women reported stomatitis both more often and with greater severity than did men. The incidence of any stomatitis for women was 63% versus 52% for men (P =.002). The incidence of severe or very severe stomatitis for men and women was 22% and 12%, respectively (P =. 0006). On average, women reported stomatitis of roughly 0.4 points higher than men on a 0 to 4 ordinal scale (P <.00001). Comparison of results across treatment and placebo arms was carried out to validate the initial findings. Logistic regression modelling further confirmed the results conditional on the presence of a number of potentially confounding covariates. Women were also 11% more likely than men to experience leukopenia of common toxicity criteria grade >/= 1, (70% v 59%, respectively; P <.00001) and grade 3+ (18% v 11%, respectively; P =.004). CONCLUSION: More women than men reported 5-FU-induced stomatitis. The precise mechanism resulting in different degrees of stomatitis across sex is not evident. (+info)