Induction of selected lipid metabolic enzymes and differentiation-linked structural proteins by air exposure in fetal rat skin explants.
The epidermal permeability barrier of premature infants matures rapidly following birth. Previous studies suggest that air exposure could contribute to this acceleration, because: (i) development of a structurally and functionally mature barrier accelerates when fetal rat skin explants are incubated at an air-medium interface, and (ii) occlusion with a water-impermeable membrane prevents this acceleration. To investigate further the effects of air exposure on epidermal barrier ontogenesis, we compared the activities of several key enzymes of lipid metabolism and gene expression of protein markers of epidermal differentiation in fetal rat skin explants grown immersed versus air exposed. The rate-limiting enzymes of cholesterol (HMG CoA reductase) and ceramide (serine palmitoyl transferase) synthesis were not affected. In contrast, the normal developmental increases in activities of glucosylceramide synthase and cholesterol sulfotransferase, responsible for the synthesis of glucosylceramides and cholesterol sulfate, respectively, were accelerated further by air exposure. Additionally, two enzymes required for the final stages of barrier maturation and essential for normal stratum corneum function, beta-glucocerebrosidase, which converts glucosylceramide to ceramide, and steroid sulfatase, which desulfates cholesterol sulfate, also increased with air exposure. Furthermore, filaggrin and loricrin mRNA levels, and filaggrin, loricrin, and involucrin protein levels all increased with air exposure. Finally, occlusion with a water-impermeable membrane prevented both the air-exposure-induced increase in lipid enzyme activity, and the expression of loricrin, filaggrin, and involucrin. Thus, air exposure stimulates selected lipid metabolic enzymes and the gene expression of key structural proteins in fetal epidermis, providing a biochemical basis for air-induced acceleration of permeability barrier maturation in premature infants. (+info)
Transposition of SRY into the ancestral pseudoautosomal region creates a new pseudoautosomal boundary in a progenitor of simian primates.
We have isolated the prosimian lemur homologues for STS and SRY. FISH unambiguously co-localized STS with SHOX, IL3RA, ANT3 and PRK into the meiotic X-Y pairing region (PAR) of lemurs. In contrast to the close proximity of SRY to the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB) on the Y chromosome in simian primates, SRY maps distant from the PAR in lemurs. Most interestingly, we were able to determine a DNA sequence divergence of 12.5% between the human and lemur SRY HMG box. This divergence directs to a 52 million year period of separate evolution of human and lemur SRY genes. Phylogenetically, this time period falls in between the times that prosimians and New World monkeys branched from the human lineage. Thus, we conclude that approximately 52 million years ago a transposition of SRY into the ancestral eutherian PAR distal to STS and PRK defined a new PAB in a simian progenitor. By this event, STS and PRK, amongst other genes, were excluded from the X-Y crossover process and thus became susceptible to rearrangements and/or deterioration on the Y chromosome in simian primates. (+info)
In vivo and in vitro expression of steroid-converting enzymes in human breast tumours: associations with interleukin-6.
Enzymes modulating local steroid availability play an important role in the progression of human breast cancer. These include isoforms of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-HSD), aromatase and steroid sulphatase (STS). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, of 17-HSD types I-IV, aromatase and steroid STS in a series of 51 human breast tumour biopsies and 22 primary cultures of epithelial and stromal cells derived from these tumours, giving a profile of the steroid-regulating network for individual tumours. Correlations between enzyme expression profiles and expression of the interleukin (IL)-6 gene were also sought. All except one tumour expressed at least one isoform of 17-HSD, either alone or in combination with aromatase and STS. Expression of 17-HSD isoforms I-IV were observed in nine tumours. Of the 15 tumours which expressed three isoforms, a combination of 17-HSD II, III and IV was most common (6/15 samples). The majority of tumours (n = 17) expressed two isoforms of 17-HSD with combinations of 17-HSD II and IV predominant (7/17 samples). Eight tumours expressed a single isoform and of these, 17-HSD I was in the majority (5/8 samples). In primary epithelial cultures, enzyme expression was ranked: HSD I (86%) > STS (77%) > HSD II (59%) > HSD IV (50%) = aromatase (50%) > HSD III (32%). Incidence of enzyme expression was generally reduced in stromal cultures which were ranked: HSD I (68%) > STS (67%) > aromatase (48%) > HSD II (43%) > HSD IV (28%) > HSD III (19%). Expression of IL-6 was associated with tumours that expressed > or = 3 steroid-converting enzymes. These tumours were of higher grade and tended to come from patients with family history of breast cancer. In conclusion, we propose that these enzymes work in tandem with cytokines thereby providing sufficient quantities of bioactive oestrogen from less active precursors which stimulates tumour growth. (+info)
Mutation report: a novel partial deletion of exons 2-10 of the STS gene in recessive X-linked ichthyosis.
X-linked ichthyosis is an inherited disease due to steroid sulfatase deficiency. Onset is at birth or early after birth with dark, regular, and adherent scales of skin. Approximately 85%-90% of X-linked ichthyosis patients have large deletions of the STS gene and flanking sequences. Three patients have been identified with partial deletions of the gene. Two deletions have been found at the 3' extreme and the other one implicating exons 2-5. This study describes a novel partial deletion of the STS gene in an X-linked ichthyosis patient. The subject was classified through steroid sulfatase assay in leukocytes using 7-[3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as a substrate. Exons 1, 2, 5, and 7-10, and 3' flanking sequences DXS1131, DXS1133, DXS237, DXS1132, DXF22S1, and DXS278 of the STS gene were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction. The DNA analysis showed that exon 1 and 3' flanking sequences from DXS237 to DXS278 were present. In this study we report the fourth partial deletion of the STS gene and the first spanning exons 2-10 in X-linked ichthyosis patients. (+info)
Novel point mutations in the steroid sulfatase gene in patients with X-linked ichthyosis: transfection analysis using the mutated genes.
X-linked ichthyosis is caused by steroid sulfatase deficiency which results from abnormalities in its coding gene. The majority of X-linked ichthyosis patients ( approximately 90%) have complete or partial deletions of the steroid sulfatase gene. In this study, we examined the mutations of the steroid sulfatase gene in two unrelated X-linked ichthyosis patients without complete deletion of the gene. Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing analyses showed that each patient has a different single base pair substitution within exon 8 encoding the C-terminal half of the steroid sulfatase polypeptide. Both mutations resulted in the transversion of functional amino acids: a G-->C substitution at nucleotide 1344, causing a predicted change of a glycine to an arginine, and a C-->T substitution at nucleotide 1371, causing a change from a glutamine to a stop codon. In vitro steroid sulfatase cDNA expression using site-directed mutagenesis revealed that these mutations are in fact pathogenic and reflect the levels of steroid sulfatase enzyme activities in each of the X-linked ichthyosis patients. (+info)
Interstitial deletion in Xp22.3 is associated with X linked ichthyosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy.
We describe monozygotic male twins with an interstitial deletion of Xp22.3 including the steroid sulphatase gene (STS). The twins had X linked ichthyosis, X linked mental retardation, and epilepsy. A locus for X linked mental retardation has been assigned to a region between STS and DXS31 spanning approximately 3 Mb. Recently the locus was further refined to an approximately 1 Mb region between DXS1060 and GS1. By PCR analysis of flanking STS gene markers in our patients we succeeded in narrowing down the locus to between DXS6837 and GS1. (+info)
Potent active site-directed inhibition of steroid sulphatase by tricyclic coumarin-based sulphamates.
BACKGROUND: There is now abundant evidence that inhibition of steroid sulphatase alone or in conjunction with inhibition of aromatase may enhance the response of postmenopausal patients with hormone-dependent breast cancer to this type of endocrine therapy. Additionally, sulphatase inhibition has been proposed to be of potential therapeutic benefit in the immune system and for neuro-degenerative diseases. After the finding that our first highly potent active site-directed steroid sulphatase inhibitor, oestrone-3-O-sulphamate (EMATE), was highly oestrogenic, we proposed non-steroidal coumarin sulphamates such as 4-methylcoumarin-7-O-sulphamate (COUMATE) as alternative non-steroidal steroid sulphatase inhibitors. In this work, we describe how tricyclic coumarin-based sulphamates have been developed which are even more potent than COUMATE, are non-oestrogenic and orally active. We also discuss potential mechanisms of action. RESULTS: 4-Ethyl- (4), 4-(n-propyl)- (6), 3-ethyl-4-methyl- (8), 4-methyl-3-(n-propyl)coumarin-7-O-sulphamate (11); the tricyclic derivatives 665COUMATE (13), 666COUMATE (15), 667COUMATE (17), 668COUMATE (20) and the tricyclic oxepin sulphamate (22) were synthesised. In a placental microsome preparation, all of these analogues were found to be more active than COUMATE in the inhibition of oestrone sulphatase, with the most potent inhibitor being 667COUMATE which has an IC(50) of 8 nM, some 3-fold lower than that for EMATE (25 nM). In addition, 667COUMATE was also found to inhibit DHEA-sulphatase some 25-fold more potently than EMATE in a placental microsome preparation. Like EMATE, 667COUMATE acts in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that it is an active site-directed inhibitor. However, in contrast to EMATE, 667COUMATE has the important advantage of not being oestrogenic. In addition, we propose several diverse mechanisms of action for this active site-directed steroid sulphatase inhibitor in the light of recent publications on the crystal structures of human arylsulphatases A and B and the catalytic site topology for the hydrolysis of a sulphate ester. CONCLUSIONS: A highly potent non-steroidal, non-oestrogenic and irreversible steroid sulphatase inhibitor has been developed. Several mechanisms of action for an active site-directed steroid sulphatase inhibitor are proposed. With 667COUMATE now in pre-clinical development for clinical trial, this should allow the biological and/or clinical significance of steroid sulphatase inhibitors in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-dependent breast cancer and other therapeutic indications to be fully evaluated. (+info)
Deletion of exons 1-5 of the STS gene causing X-linked ichthyosis.
X-linked ichthyosis is an inherited disorder due to steroid sulfatase deficiency. It is clinically characterized by dark, adhesive, and regular scales of the skin. Most X-linked ichthyosis patients present large deletions of the STS gene and flanking markers; a minority show a point mutation or partial deletion of the STS gene. In this study we analyzed the STS gene in a family with simultaneous occurrence of X-linked ichthyosis and ichthyosis vulgaris. X-linked ichthyosis diagnosis was confirmed through steroid sulfatase assay in leukocytes using 7-[3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as a substrate. Exons 1, 2, 5, and 6-10, and the 5' flanking markers DXS1130, DXS1139, and DXS996 of the STS gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. X-linked ichthyosis patients of the family (n = 4 males) had undetectable levels of STS activity (0.00 pmol per mg protein per h). The DNA analysis showed that only exons 6-10 and the 5' flanking markers of the STS gene were present. We report the first partial deletion of the STS gene spanning exons 1-5 in X-linked ichthyosis patients. (+info)