Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (1/661)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Paradoxical effect on atherosclerosis of hormone-sensitive lipase overexpression in macrophages. (2/661)

Foam cells formed from receptor-mediated uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol by macrophages in the arterial intima are critical in the initiation, progression, and stability of atherosclerotic lesions. Macrophages accumulate cholesterol when conditions favor esterification by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) over cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis by a neutral cholesteryl-ester hydrolase, such as hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and subsequent cholesterol efflux mediated by extracellular acceptors. We recently made stable transfectants of a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, that overexpressed a rat HSL cDNA and had a 5-fold higher rate of cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis than control cells. The current study examined the effect of macrophage-specific HSL overexpression on susceptibility to diet-induced atherosclerosis in mice. A transgenic line overexpressing the rat HSL cDNA regulated with a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor promoter-enhancer was established by breeding with C57BL/6J mice. Transgenic peritoneal macrophages exhibited macrophage-specific 7-fold overexpression of HSL cholesterol esterase activity. Total plasma cholesterol levels in transgenic mice fed a chow diet were modestly elevated 16% compared to control littermates. After 14 weeks on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, total cholesterol increased 3-fold, with no difference between transgenics and controls. However, HSL overexpression resulted in thicker aortic fatty lesions that were 2.5-times larger in transgenic mice. HSL expression in the aortic lesions was shown by immunocytochemistry. Atherosclerosis was more advanced in transgenic mice exhibiting raised lesions involving the aortic wall, along with lipid accumulation in coronary arteries occurring only in transgenics. Thus, increasing cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis, without concomitantly decreasing ACAT activity or increasing cholesterol efflux, is not sufficient to protect against atherosclerosis. hormone-sensitive lipase overexpression in macrophages.  (+info)

Testis expression of hormone-sensitive lipase is conferred by a specific promoter that contains four regions binding testicular nuclear proteins. (3/661)

The testicular isoform of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSLtes) is encoded by a testis-specific exon and 9 exons common to the testis and adipocyte isoforms. In mouse, HSLtes mRNA appeared during spermiogenesis in round spermatids. Two constructs containing 1.4 and 0.5 kilobase pairs (kb) of the human HSLtes gene 5'-flanking region cloned upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene were microinjected into mouse oocytes. Analyses of enzyme activity in male and female transgenic mice showed that 0.5 kb of the HSLtes promoter was sufficient to direct expression only in testis. Cell transfection experiments showed that CREMtau, a testis-specific transcriptional activator, does not transactivate the HSLtes promoter. Using gel retardation assays, four testis-specific binding regions (TSBR) were identified using testis and liver nuclear extracts. The testis-specific protein binding on TSBR4 was selectively competed by a probe containing a SRY/Sox protein DNA recognition site. Sox5 and Sox6 which are expressed in post-meiotic germ cells bound TSBR4. Mutation of the AACAAAG motif in TSBR4 abolished the binding. Moreover, binding of the high mobility group domain of Sox5 induced a bend within TSBR4. Together, our results showed that 0.5 kb of the human HSLtes promoter bind Sox proteins and contain cis-acting elements essential for the testis specificity of HSL.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a cholesteryl ester hydrolase from rat liver microsomes. (4/661)

This report describes a purification procedure for a cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) from female rat liver microsomes, and some structural, immunological, kinetic, and regulatory properties of the enzyme that distinguish the microsomal CEH from other hepatic cholesteryl ester-splitting enzymes. CEH was purified 12.4-fold from reisolated microsomes using sequential solubilization by sonication, polyethylene glycol precipitation, fractionation with hydroxyapatite, anion exchange chromatography, and chromatography on hydroxyapatite, with an overall yield of 3.2%. CEH activity was purified 141-fold over nonspecific esterase activity and 56-fold over triacylglycerol lipase activity. In sharp contrast with most esterases and lipases, CEH did not bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose. After polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified enzyme exhibited two silver-stained bands, but only the protein electroeluted from the low mobility band had CEH activity. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies raised to electroeluted CEH inhibited 90% of the activity of liver microsomal CEH and reacted with a 106 kDa protein band on Western blot analysis. This 106 kDa CEH contains a unique N-terminal amino acid sequence. The purified enzyme had optimal activity at pH 6 and no taurocholate requirements, and was inhibited by the serine active site inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and by free sulfhydryl specific reagents. It hydrolyzed cholesteryl oleate much more efficiently than trioleine, and hydrolytic activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate was higher than with p-nitrophenyl butyrate. These results indicate that rat liver microsomes contain a bile salt-independent catalytic protein that is relatively specific for cholesteryl ester hydrolysis.  (+info)

Relationship between hormone-sensitive lipolysis and lipase activity in rat fat cells. (5/661)

An assay for total hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in rat fat cells was devised in which fat-associated HSL was solubilized with ether, and triolein or cholesteryloleate was used as substrate. Norepinephrine (NE) caused marked release of glycerol from fat cells but did not activate HSL as estimated using triolein or cholesteryloleate as substrate. Propranolol, a beta-blocker, inhibited NE-induced lipolysis in fat cells without a concomitant reduction in HSL activity. The antilipolytic action of insulin on NE-induced lipolysis could not be explained by a decrease in HSL activity. Neither ACTH-induced lipolysis in fat cells nor its inhibition by insulin was accompanied by matching fluctuations in HSL activity. These results indicate that neither NE and ACTH-induced lipolysis in fat cells, nor the antilipolytic actions of propranolol and insulin, involve fluctuations in HSL activity.  (+info)

Interaction of rat hormone-sensitive lipase with adipocyte lipid-binding protein. (6/661)

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a cytosolic neutral lipase that functions as the rate-limiting enzyme for the mobilization of free fatty acids in adipose tissue. By using the yeast two-hybrid system to examine the potential interaction of HSL with other cellular proteins, evidence is provided to demonstrate a direct interaction of HSL with adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP), a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins that binds fatty acids, retinoids, and other hydrophobic ligands. The interaction was demonstrated in vitro by the binding of ALBP to HSL translated in vitro, to HSL in extracts of HSL overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and to HSL in extracts of rat adipose tissue. Finally, the presence of ALBP was documented in immune complexes from rat adipose tissue immunoprecipitated with anti-HSL antibodies. The HSL-ALBP interaction was mapped to an N-terminal 300-aa region of HSL that is distinct from the C-terminal catalytic domain. These results suggest that HSL-derived fatty acids are bound by ALBP to facilitate intracellular trafficking of hydrophobic lipids.  (+info)

Expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and its regulation by adrenaline in skeletal muscle. (7/661)

The enzymic regulation of triacylglycerol breakdown in skeletal muscle is poorly understood. Western blotting of muscle fibres isolated by collagenase treatment or after freeze-drying demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), with the concentrations in soleus and diaphragm being more than four times the concentrations in extensor digitorum longus and epitrochlearis muscles. Neutral lipase activity determined under conditions optimal for HSL varied directly with immunoreactivity. Expressed relative to triacylglycerol content, neutral lipase activity in soleus muscle was about 10 times that in epididymal adipose tissue. In incubated soleus muscle, both neutral lipase activity against triacylglycerol (but not against a diacylglycerol analogue) and glycogen phosphorylase activity increased in response to adrenaline (epinephrine). The lipase activation was completely inhibited by anti-HSL antibody and by propranolol. The effect of adrenaline could be mimicked by incubation of crude supernatant from control muscle with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, while no effect of the kinase subunit was seen with supernatant from adrenaline-treated muscle. The results indicate that HSL is present in skeletal muscle and is stimulated by adrenaline via beta-adrenergic activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The concentration of HSL is higher in oxidative than in glycolytic muscle, and the enzyme is activated in parallel with glycogen phosphorylase.  (+info)

Domain identification of hormone-sensitive lipase by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, limited proteolysis, and mass spectrometry. (8/661)

Structure-function relationship analyses of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) have suggested that this metabolically important enzyme consists of several functional and at least two structural domains (Osterlund, T., Danielsson, B., Degerman, E., Contreras, J. A., Edgren, G., Davis, R. C., Schotz, M. C., and Holm, C. (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 411-420; Contreras, J. A., Karlsson, M., Osterlund, T., Laurell, H., Svensson, A., and Holm, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31426-31430). To analyze the structural domain composition of HSL in more detail, we applied biophysical methods. Denaturation of HSL was followed by circular dichroism measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy, revealing that the unfolding of HSL is a two-step event. Using limited proteolysis in combination with mass spectrometry, several proteolytic fragments of HSL were identified, including one corresponding exactly to the proposed N-terminal domain. Major cleavage sites were found in the predicted hinge region between the two domains and in the regulatory module of the C-terminal, catalytic domain. Analyses of a hinge region cleavage mutant and calculations of the hydropathic pattern of HSL further suggest that the hinge region and regulatory module are exposed parts of HSL. Together, these data support our previous hypothesis that HSL consists of two major structural domains, encoded by exons 1-4 and 5-9, respectively, of which the latter contains an exposed regulatory module outside the catalytic alpha/beta-hydrolase fold core.  (+info)