Formation of azole-resistant Candida albicans by mutation of sterol 14-demethylase P450.
The sterol 14-demethylase P450 (CYP51) of a fluconazole-resistant isolate of Candida albicans, DUMC136, showed reduced susceptibility to this azole but with little change in its catalytic activity. Twelve nucleotide substitutions, resulting in four amino acid changes, were identified in the DUMC136 CYP51 gene in comparison with a reported CYP51 sequence from a wild-type, fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans strain. Seven of these substitutions, including all of those causing amino acid changes, were located within a region covering one of the putative substrate recognition sites of the enzyme (SRS-1). Polymorphisms within this region were observed in several C. albicans isolates, and some were found to be CYP51 heterozygotes. Among the amino acid changes occurring in this region, only an alteration of Y132 was common among these fluconazole-resistant isolates, which suggests the importance of this residue to the fluconazole resistance of the target enzyme. DUMC136 and another fluconazole-resistant isolate were homozygotes with respect to CYP51, although the typical wild-type, fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans was a CYP51 heterozygote. These findings suggest that part of the fluconazole-resistant phenotype of C. albicans DUMC136 was acquired through a mutation-prone area of CYP51, an area which might promote the formation of fluconazole-resistant CYP51, along with a mechanism(s) which allows the formation of a homozygote of this altered CYP51 in this diploid pathogenic yeast. (+info)
Comprehensive evaluation of isoprenoid biosynthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing the Genome Reporter Matrix.
Gene expression profiling is rapidly becoming a mainstay of functional genomic studies. However, there have been relatively few studies of how the data from expression profiles integrate with more classic approaches to examine gene expression. This study used gene expression profiling of a portion of the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the impact of blocks in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway on the expression of genes and the regulation of this pathway. Approximately 50% of the genes whose expression was altered by blocks in isoprenoid biosynthesis were genes previously known to participate in the pathway. In contrast to this simple correspondence, the regulatory patterns revealed by different blocks, and in particular by antifungal azoles, was complex in a manner not anticipated by earlier studies. (+info)
Optimized expression and catalytic properties of a wheat obtusifoliol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) expressed in yeast. Complementation of erg11Delta yeast mutants by plant CYP51.
CYP51s form the only family of P450 proteins conserved in evolution from prokaryotes to fungi, plants and mammals. In all eukaryotes, CYP51s catalyse 14alpha-demethylation of sterols. We have recently isolated two CYP51 cDNAs from sorghum [Bak, S., Kahn, R.A., Olsen, C. E. & Halkier, B.A. (1997) Plant J. 11, 191-201] and wheat [Cabello-Hurtado, F., Zimmerlin, A., Rahier, A., Taton, M., DeRose, R., Nedelkina, S., Batard, Y., Durst, F., Pallett, K.E. & Werck-Reichhart, D. (1997) Biophys. Biochem. Res. Commun. 230, 381-385]. Wheat and sorghum CYP51 proteins show a high identity (92%) compared with their identity with their fungal and mammalian orthologues (32-39%). Data obtained with plant microsomes have previously suggested that differences in primary sequences reflect differences in sterol pathways and CYP51 substrate specificities between animals, fungi and plants. To investigate more thoroughly the properties of the plant CYP51, the wheat enzyme was expressed in yeast strains overexpressing different P450 reductases as a fusion with either yeast or plant (sorghum) membrane targeting sequences. The endogenous sterol demethylase gene (ERG11) was then disrupted. A sorghum-wheat fusion protein expressed with the Arabidopsis thaliana reductase ATR1 showed the highest level of expression and activity. The expression induced a marked proliferation of microsomal membranes so as to obtain 70 nmol P450.(L culture)-1, with CYP51 representing 1.5% of microsomal protein. Without disruption of the ERG11 gene, the expression level was fivefold reduced. CYP51 from wheat complemented the ERG11 disruption, as the modified yeasts did not need supplementation with exogenous ergosterol and grew normally under aerobic conditions. The fusion plant enzyme catalysed 14alpha-demethylation of obtusifoliol very actively (Km,app = 197 microm, kcat = 1.2 min-1) and with very strict substrate specificity. No metabolism of lanosterol and eburicol, the substrates of the fungal and mammalian CYP51s, nor metabolism of herbicides and fatty acids was detected in the recombinant yeast microsomes. Surprisingly lanosterol (Ks = 2.2 microM) and eburicol (Ks = 2.5 microm) were found to bind the active site of the plant enzyme with affinities higher than that for obtusifoliol (Ks = 289 microM), giving typical type-I spectra. The amplitudes of these spectra, however, suggested that lanosterol and eburicol were less favourably positioned to be metabolized than obtusifoliol. The recombinant enzyme was also used to test the relative binding constants of two azole compounds, LAB170250F and gamma-ketotriazole, which were previously reported to be potent inhibitors of the plant enzyme. The Ks of plant CYP51 for LAB170250F (0.29 microM) and gamma-ketotriazole (0.40 microM) calculated from the type-II sp2 nitrogen-binding spectra were in better agreement with their reported effects as plant CYP51 inhibitors than values previously determined with plant microsomes. This optimized expression system thus provides an excellent tool for detailed enzymological and mechanistic studies, and for improving the selectivity of inhibitory molecules. (+info)
Cholesterol starvation decreases p34(cdc2) kinase activity and arrests the cell cycle at G2.
As a major component of mammalian cell plasma membranes, cholesterol is essential for cell growth. Accordingly, the restriction of cholesterol provision has been shown to result in cell proliferation inhibition. We explored the potential regulatory role of cholesterol on cell cycle progression. MOLT-4 and HL-60 cell lines were cultured in a cholesterol-deficient medium and simultaneously exposed to SKF 104976, which is a specific inhibitor of lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase. Through HPLC analyses with on-line radioactivity detection, we found that SKF 104976 efficiently blocked the [(14)C]-acetate incorporation into cholesterol, resulting in an accumulation of lanosterol and dihydrolanosterol, without affecting the synthesis of mevalonic acid. The inhibitor also produced a rapid and intense inhibition of cell proliferation (IC(50) = 0.1 microM), as assessed by both [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counting. Flow cytometry and morphological examination showed that treatment with SKF 104976 for 48 h or longer resulted in the accumulation of cells specifically at G2 phase, whereas both the G1 traversal and the transition through S were unaffected. The G2 arrest was accompanied by an increase in the hyperphosphorylated form of p34(cdc2) and a reduction of its activity, as determined by assaying the H1 histone phosphorylating activity of p34(cdc2) immunoprecipitates. The persistent deficiency of cholesterol induced apoptosis. However, supplementing the medium with cholesterol, either in the form of LDL or free cholesterol dissolved in ethanol, completely abolished these effects, whereas mevalonate was ineffective. Caffeine, which abrogates the G2 checkpoint by preventing p34(cdc2) phosphorylation, reduced the accumulation in G2 when added to cultures containing cells on transit to G2, but was ineffective in cells arrested at G2 by sustained cholesterol starvation. Cells arrested in G2, however, were still viable and responded to cholesterol provision by activating p34(cdc2) and resuming the cell cycle. We conclude that in both lymphoblastoid and promyelocytic cells, cholesterol availability governs the G2 traversal, probably by affecting p34(cdc2) activity. (+info)
Characterization and catalytic properties of the sterol 14alpha-demethylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Sterol 14alpha-demethylase encoded by CYP51 is a mixed-function oxidase involved in sterol synthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Completion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome project revealed that a protein having homology to mammalian 14alpha-demethylases might be present in this bacterium. Using genomic DNA from mycobacterial strain H(37)Rv, we have established unambiguously that the CYP51-like gene encodes a bacterial sterol 14alpha-demethylase. Expression of the M. tuberculosis CYP51 gene in Escherichia coli yields a P450, which, when purified to homogeneity, has the predicted molecular mass, ca. 50 kDa on SDS/PAGE, and binds both sterol substrates and azole inhibitors of P450 14alpha-demethylases. It catalyzes 14alpha-demethylation of lanosterol, 24, 25-dihydrolanosterol, and obtusifoliol to produce the 8,14-dienes stereoselectively as shown by GC/MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Both flavodoxin and ferredoxin redox systems are able to support this enzymatic activity. Structural requirements of a 14alpha-methyl group and Delta(8(9))-bond were established by comparing binding of pairs of sterol substrate that differed in a single molecular feature, e.g., cycloartenol paired with lanosterol. These substrate requirements are similar to those established for plant and animal P450 14alpha-demethylases. From the combination of results, the interrelationships of substrate functional groups within the active site show that oxidative portions of the sterol biosynthetic pathway are present in prokaryotes. (+info)
Nested allele-specific PCR primers distinguish genetic groups of Uncinula necator.
Isolates of the obligately biotrophic fungus Uncinula necator cluster in three distinct genetic groups (groups I, II, and III). We designed PCR primers specific for these groups in order to monitor field populations of U. necator. We used the nucleotide sequences of the gene that encodes eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) and of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), ITS2, and 5. 8S regions. We identified four point mutations (three in CYP51 and one in ITS1) that distinguished groups I and II from group III based on a sample of 132 single-spore isolates originating from Europe, Tunisia, Israel, India, and Australia. We developed a nested allele-specific PCR assay in which the CYP51 point mutations were used to detect and distinguish groups I and II from group III in crude mildewed samples from vineyards. In a preliminary study performed with samples from French vineyards in which isolates belonging to genetic groups I and III were present, we found that a shift from a population composed primarily of group I isolates to a population composed primarily of group III isolates occurred during the grapevine growing season. (+info)
Contribution of mutations in the cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase (Erg11p, Cyp51p) to azole resistance in Candida albicans.
The cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase, encoded by the ERG11 (CYP51) gene, is the primary target for the azole class of antifungals. Changes in the azole affinity of this enzyme caused by amino acid substitutions have been reported as a resistance mechanism. Nine Candida albicans strains were used in this study. The ERG11 base sequence of seven isolates, of which only two were azole-sensitive, were determined. The ERG11 base sequences of the other two strains have been published previously. In these seven isolates, 12 different amino acid substitutions were identified, of which six have not been described previously (A149V, D153E, E165Y, S279F, V452A and G4655). In addition, 16 silent mutations were found. Two different biochemical assays, subcellular sterol biosynthesis and CO binding to reduced microsomal fractions, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the cytochromes for fluconazole and itraconazole. Enzyme preparations from four isolates showed reduced itraconazole susceptibility, whereas more pronounced resistance to fluconazole was observed in five isolates. A three-dimensional model of C. albicans Cyp51p was used to position all 29 reported substitutions, 98 in total identified in 53 sequences. These 29 substitutions were not randomly distributed over the sequence but clustered in three regions from amino acids 105 to 165, from 266 to 287 and from 405 to 488, suggesting the existence of hotspot regions. Of the mutations found in the two N-terminal regions only Y132H was demonstrated to be of importance for azole resistance. In the C-terminal region three mutations are associated with resistance, suggesting that the non-characterized substitutions found in this region should be prioritized for further analysis. (+info)
Multiple amino acid substitutions in lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase contribute to azole resistance in Candida albicans.
Lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (14DM) is the target of the azole antifungals, and alteration of the 14DM sequence leading to a decreased affinity of the enzyme for azoles is one of several potential mechanisms for resistance to these drugs in Candida albicans. In order to identify such alterations the authors investigated a collection of 19 C. albicans clinical isolates demonstrating either frank resistance (MICs > or = 32 microg ml(-1)) or dose-dependent resistance (MICs 8-16 microg ml(-1)) to fluconazole. In cell-free extracts from four isolates, including the Darlington strain ATCC 64124, sensitivity of sterol biosynthesis to inhibition by fluconazole was greatly reduced, suggesting that alterations in the activity or affinity of the 14DM could contribute to resistance. Cloning and sequencing of the 14DM gene from these isolates revealed 12 different alterations (two to four per isolate) leading to changes in the deduced amino acid sequence. Five of these mutations have not previously been reported. To demonstrate that these alterations could affect fungal susceptibility to azoles, the 14DM genes from one sensitive and three resistant C. albicans strains were tagged at the carboxyl terminus with a c-myc epitope and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under control of the endogenous promoter. Transformants receiving 14DM genes from resistant strains had fluconazole MICs up to 32-fold higher than those of transformants receiving 14DM from a sensitive strain, although Western blot analysis indicated that the level of expressed 14DM was similar in all transformants. Amino acid substitutions in the 14DM gene from the Darlington strain also conferred a strong cross-resistance to ketoconazole. In conclusion, multiple genetic alterations in C. albicans 14DM, including several not previously reported, can affect the affinity of the enzyme for azoles and contribute to resistance of clinical isolates. (+info)