Folliculogenesis is impaired and granulosa cell apoptosis is increased in leptin-deficient mice.
Leptin purportedly plays an important role in pubertal development in a number of mammalian species. Adult leptin-deficient (ob/ob) female mice are infertile, but the mechanisms responsible for the reproductive failure have not been fully elucidated. The major objective of the current study was to assess the effects of a leptin deficiency on ovarian folliculogenesis and apoptosis. Beginning at 4 wk of age, control (n = 8) and ob/ob (n = 7) mice were weighed and examined daily for vaginal opening. After 3 wk the mice were killed, and the reproductive organs were weighed. Ovaries were paraffin-embedded for hematoxylin and eosin histology, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemistry for Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Vaginal opening was delayed, uteri were smaller, and the number of primordial follicles and total number of ovarian follicles were subnormal in ob/ob animals. Leptin-deficient animals also had a higher number of atretic follicles than controls. Granulosa cells (predominantly in preantral and early antral follicles) of ob/ob mice exhibited increased apoptotic activity as documented by TUNEL assay and elevated expression of the apoptotic markers Fas and FasL, compared with that in control animals. Ovarian expression of PCNA, a marker of DNA replication, repair, or both, did not differ between ob/ob and control mice. The data suggest that a leptin deficiency in mice is associated with impaired folliculogenesis, which results in increased follicular atresia. This impairment may be one of the causative components of infertility in leptin-deficient animals. (+info)
Effects of GH replacement therapy in adults on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin: the role of lipolysis.
OBJECTIVE: The regulation and function of systemic ghrelin levels appear to be associated with food intake and energy balance rather than GH. Since GH, in turn, acutely induces lipolysis and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, we aimed to study the isolated and combined effects of GH, free fatty acids (FFAs) and insulin sensitivity on circulating ghrelin levels in human subjects. DESIGN: Seven GH-deficient patients (aged 37 +/- 4 years (mean +/- s.e.)) were studied on four occasions in a 2 x 2 factorial design with and without GH substitution and with and without administration of acipimox, which lowers FFA levels by inhibition of the hormone-sensitive lipase, in the basal state and during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Serum FFA levels decreased with acipimox administration irrespective of GH status. The GH-induced reduction in insulin sensitivity was countered by acipimox. Fasting ghrelin levels decreased insignificantly during GH administration alone, but were reduced by 33% during co-administration of GH and acipimox (Aci) (in ng/l): 860 +/- 120 (-GH - Aci), 711 +/- 130 (-GH + Aci), 806 +/- 130 (+GH - Aci), 574 +/- 129 (+GH + Aci), P < 0.01. The clamp was associated with a further, moderate lowering of ghrelin. GH and acipimox induced a reciprocal 25% increase in serum leptin levels (microg/l): 11.2 +/- 4.4 (-GH - Aci), 11.7 +/- 4.4 (-GH + Aci), 11.5 +/- 4.4 (+GH - Aci), 13.9 +/- 4.2 (+GH + Aci), P = 0.005. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that antilipolysis via suppression of the hormone-sensitive lipase in combination with GH administration is associated with significant and reciprocal changes in ghrelin and leptin. (+info)
Interdependence of lean body mass and total body water, but not quality of life measures, during low dose GH replacement in GH-deficient adults.
Lean body mass (LBM) and total body water (TBW) are reduced in GH-deficient (GHD) adults and alter with GH replacement. Whether these parameters are interdependent and whether alterations in their homeostasis contribute to the perceived quality of life (QOL) deficit in GHD remains unclear. In this study, IGF-I, body composition by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, TBW by deuterium dilution (D(2)O) and two validated QOL instruments - psychological general well-being schedule (PGWB, generic, 6 domains; lower score worse QOL) and assessment of GH deficiency in adults (AGHDA, disease orientated; higher score worse QOL) were studied at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of GH replacement in thirty GHD adults. Patients with diabetes insipidus, and cardiac and renal failure were excluded. Median age-adjusted IGF-I standard deviation score increased from -3.40 (-6.40 to -1.60) to -0.2 (-1.88 to 0.78) (P < 0.0001) at a median daily GH dose of 0.4 mg. During treatment, LBM increased from 47.4 +/- 10.7 kg at baseline to 49.5 +/- 10.8 kg at 6 months (P = 0.0008), and fat mass decreased from 28.0 +/- 12.1 kg at baseline to 27.2 +/- 12.6 kg at 6 months (P = 0.0004). A non-significant trend towards an increase in TBW was observed (mean 1.7 kg, P = 0.08). The PGWB score increased from 62.9 +/- 20.6 to 73.7 +/- 21.7 (P = 0.0006). The AGHDA score decreased from 13.7 +/- 7.3 to 8.75 +/- 7.75 (P = 0.0002). At each time point, a linear correlation between LBM and TBW was demonstrated, defined by TBW = (0.972 x LBM)-10.6. However, only a weakly positive correlation existed between the percentage changes in these variables (R = 0.40, P = 0.04). No correlations were demonstrated between QOL measures and body composition. The change in LBM with physiological GH replacement correlates weakly with change in TBW, therefore factors other than TBW may also contribute to the LBM changes. Improved QOL with GH replacement is not explained by favourable changes in body composition. (+info)
Micellar solubilisation of cholesterol is essential for absorption in humans.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intralumenal bile acid (BA) concentrations have a profound effect on cholesterol absorption. We performed studies to assess the effects of markedly reduced lumenal BA on cholesterol absorption in children with inborn errors in BA synthesis and the role of micellar solubilisation of cholesterol on its absorption in an animal model using human intestinal contents. METHODS: We studied five subjects: two with 3beta hydroxy-C27 steroid dehydrogenase isomerase deficiency (3-HSD), two with Delta(4)-3-oxosteroid 5beta reductase deficiency (5beta reductase), and one with 2-methylacyl CoA racemase deficiency (racemase). Subjects were studied on supplemental BA therapy and three weeks after withdrawal of supplements. During each treatment period a liquid meal was consumed. Duodenal samples were collected and analysed, and cholesterol absorption and cholesterol fractional synthetic rates were measured. Human intralumenal contents were infused in a bile diverted rat lymph fistula model to assess micellar versus vesicular absorption of cholesterol. RESULTS: Without BA supplementation, intralumenal BA concentrations were below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) whereas intralumenal BAs increased to above the CMC in all subjects on BA supplementation. Lumenal cholesterol was carried primarily as vesicles in untreated subjects whereas it was carried as both micelles and vesicles in treated subjects. Cholesterol absorption increased approximately 55% in treated compared with untreated subjects (p=0.041), with a simultaneous 70% decrease in synthesis rates (p=0.029). In the rat lymph fistula model, minimal vesicular cholesterol was absorbed whereas vesicular and micellar fatty acid and phospholipid were comparably absorbed. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing micellar cholesterol solubilisation by supplemental BA in subjects with inborn errors of BA synthesis leads to an improvement in cholesterol absorption and reduction in cholesterol synthesis due to improved micellar solubilisation of cholesterol. (+info)
Malformation syndromes caused by disorders of cholesterol synthesis.