Luteinization and proteolysis in ovarian follicles of Meishan and Large White gilts during the preovulatory period.
This experiment was conducted to determine why follicles luteinize faster in the Meishan breed than in the Large White breed of pig. Follicles were recovered during the late follicular phase from ovaries of both breeds before and after administration of hCG given to mimic the LH surge. First, the patterns of cholesterol transporters (high and low density lipoproteins: HDL and LDL) were compared. Cholesterol transporters detected in follicular fluid consisted of HDL only. Similar amounts of Apolipoprotein A-I were found in all samples. There was no obvious breed effect on minor lipoproteins found in the HDL-rich fraction, and this pattern was altered similarly by hCG in the two breeds. The LDL-rich samples of serum from both breeds contained similar amounts of protein. Second, three steroidogenic enzymes, adrenodoxin, 17 alpha-hydroxylase-lyase (P450(17) alpha) and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified by image analysis on sections of the two largest follicles. Before hCG treatment, theca interna cells demonstrated immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin (strong), P450(17) alpha and 3 beta-HSD (very strong), whereas granulosa cells displayed immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin only. After hCG treatment, the localization of the enzymes was unchanged but the staining intensity of adrenodoxin on granulosa cells and 3 beta-HSD on theca cells increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Breed effects were detected for the amounts of adrenodoxin in theca cells (Meishan > Large White; P < 0.05) and of 17 alpha-hydroxylase (Large White > Meishan, P < 0.01). Breed x treatment interactions were never detected. Finally, gelatinases, plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were visualized by direct or reverse zymography or western blotting. Whatever the stage relative to LH administration, follicular fluid from Large White gilts contained more TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). No breed effect was detected for the amounts of gelatinases and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. However, for these parameters, a significant breed x time interaction was obvious, as the Meishan follicles had a greater response to hCG (P < 0.01). Since proteolysis plays a key role in the bioavailability of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, which have the ability to alter gonadotrophin-induced progesterone production in pigs, the differences observed in its control in the present study may explain, at least in part, the different patterns of luteinization observed in Meishan and Large White follicles. (+info)
The relationship between a polymorphism in CYP17 with plasma hormone levels and breast cancer.
The A2 allele of CYP17 has been associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome, elevated levels of certain steroid hormones in premenopausal women, and increased breast cancer risk. We prospectively assessed the association between the A2 allele of CYP17 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. We also evaluated associations between this CYP17 genotype and plasma steroid hormone levels among postmenopausal controls not using hormone replacement to assess the biological significance of this genetic variant. Women with the A2 allele were not at an increased risk of incident breast cancer [OR (odds ratio), 0.85; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.65-1.12] or advanced breast cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.32). We did observe evidence that the inverse association of late age at menarche with breast cancer may be modified by the CYP17 A2 allele. The protective effect of later age at menarche was only observed among women without the A2 allele (A1/A1 genotype: for age at menarche > or =13 versus <13; OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90; A1/A2 and A2/A2 genotypes: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.76-1.45; P for interaction = 0.07). Among controls, we found women with the A2/A2 genotype to have elevated levels of estrone (+14.3%, P = 0.01), estradiol (+13.8%, P = 0.08), testosterone (+8.6%, P = 0.34), androstenedione (+17.1%, P = 0.06), dehydroepiandrosterone (+14.4%, P = 0.02), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (+7.2%, P = 0.26) compared with women with the A1/A1 genotype. These data suggest that the A2 allele of CYP17 modifies endogenous hormone levels, but is not a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer. (+info)
YM116, 2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole, decreases adrenal androgen synthesis by inhibiting C17-20 lyase activity in NCI-H295 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
The concentrations of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone, products of C17-20 lyase, in the medium after a 6-hr incubation of NCI-H295 cells were decreased by YM116 (2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole) (IC50: 3.6 and 2.1 nM) and ketoconazole (IC50: 54.9 and 54.2 nM). 17Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, a product of 17alpha-hydroxylase, was increased by YM116 (1-30 nM) and by ketoconazole (10-300 nM) and then was decreased at higher concentrations of both agents (IC50: 180 nM for YM116, 906 nM for ketoconazole), indicating that YM116 and ketoconazole were 50- and 16.5-fold more specific inhibitors of C17-20 lyase, respectively, than 17alpha-hydroxylase. Compatible with these findings, progesterone, a substrate of 17alpha-hydroxylase, was increased by these agents. Cortisol production was inhibited by YM116 and ketoconazole (IC50: 50.4 and 80.9 nM, respectively). YM116 was a 14-fold more potent inhibitor of androstenedione production than cortisol production, whereas ketoconazole was a nonselective inhibitor of the production of both steroids. YM116 and ketoconazole inhibited the C17-20 lyase activity in human testicular microsomes (IC50: 4.2 and 17 nM, respectively). These results demonstrate that YM116 reduces the synthesis of adrenal androgens by preferentially inhibiting C17-20 lyase activity. (+info)
Association of cytochrome b5 with 16-androstene steroid synthesis in the testis and accumulation in the fat of male pigs.
The 16-androstene steroids, one of the principal causes of boar taint, are synthesized in the testis by the andien-beta synthase enzyme system. This system has been shown in vitro to involve both cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between the levels of cytochrome b5 in the testis, in vitro steroidogenesis, and the accumulation of 16-androstene steroids in the fat of pubertal boars. We found that the in vitro rate of 16-androstene steroidogenesis in testis microsomes was correlated with 16-androstene steroid concentrations in fat (r = .66, P < .01). Western blots were used to determine the amounts of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450c17 protein in testis, and two immunoreactive cytochrome b5 proteins of approximately 12 and 16 kDa were found. Levels of cytochrome P450c17 or the high molecular weight cytochrome b5 in testis were not significantly correlated to levels of 16-androstene steroids in fat. However, levels of total cytochrome b5 immunoreactive protein and levels of the low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 were correlated to fat 16-androstene steroid concentrations (r = .59, P < .001; r = .72, P = .0001, respectively). Levels of the low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 were also correlated to 16-androstene steroid synthesis rates in vitro (r = .62, P < .05). These results indicate that increased levels of a low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 protein, and not of cytochrome P450c17, are related to increased testicular 16-androstene steroid production and accumulation in fat. These results support the hypothesis that selection for reduced levels of this low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 protein in the testis may result in decreased levels of 16-androstene steroids in fat and reduced boar taint in uncastrated male pigs. (+info)
CYP17 and breast cancer risk: the polymorphism in the 5' flanking area of the gene does not influence binding to Sp-1.
The ability of a motif of the CYP17 5' untranslated region, created by a polymorphic T to C substitution, to bind to the human transcription factor Sp-1 was investigated. No binding of any of the polymorphic alleles was observed in electromobility shift assay. No other sequence within +1 to +100 of each of the CYP17 alleles formed complex with the Sp-1 or enhanced binding to the polymorphic CACC box. Genotyping of 510 breast cancer patients and 201 controls revealed no difference in genotype frequencies. Age at onset, tumor grade, lymph node status and distant metastases, stage, and estrogen and progesterone receptor status were not associated with the CYP17 genotype. (+info)
Early neocortical regionalization in the absence of thalamic innervation.
There is a long-standing controversy regarding the mechanisms that generate the functional subdivisions of the cerebral neocortex. One model proposes that thalamic axonal input specifies these subdivisions; the competing model postulates that patterning mechanisms intrinsic to the dorsal telencephalon generate neocortical regions. Gbx-2 mutant mice, whose thalamic differentiation is disrupted, were investigated. Despite the lack of cortical innervation by thalamic axons, neocortical region-specific gene expression (Cadherin-6, EphA-7, Id-2, and RZR-beta) developed normally. This provides evidence that patterning mechanisms intrinsic to the neocortex specify the basic organization of its functional subdivisions. (+info)
Lysine mutagenesis identifies cationic charges of human CYP17 that interact with cytochrome b5 to promote male sex-hormone biosynthesis.
Human CYP17 (17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-lyase; also cytochrome P450c17 or cytochrome P450(17alpha)) catalyses a hydroxylation reaction and another reaction involving the cleavage of a C-C bond (the lyase activity) that is required only for androgen production. Single amino acid mutations in human CYP17, Arg(347)-->His and Arg(358)-->Gln, have been reported to result in the loss of the lyase activity and to cause sexual phenotypic changes in 46XY male patients. By using site-directed mutagenesis we show here that another mutation in human CYP17, Arg(449)-->Ala, for which human variants have yet not been described, also leads to selective lyase deficiency. Furthermore, all the three types of mutants display a loss of responsiveness to cytochrome b(5), an interaction that is essential for lyase activity, and hence male sex-hormone biosynthesis. That the defect could be essentially reversed by lysine mutagenesis has led to the conclusion that the cationic charges on all three residues (at the positions of Arg(347), Arg(358), Arg(449)) are vital for the functional interaction of CYP17 with cytochrome b(5) and that the loss of any one of these cationic charges is catastrophic. (+info)
A male patient presenting with major clinical symptoms of glucocorticoid deficiency and skeletal dysplasia, showing a steroid pattern compatible with 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, but without obvious CYP17 gene mutations.
We report the case of a 17-year-old boy with delayed puberty, who presented a complexity of clinical problems. An analysis of steroid hormones led to a diagnosis of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD). Unlike typical cases of 17OHD, however, the patient had pubertal development without medical intervention. In addition, he never exhibited the symptoms of mineralocorticoid excess, showing instead the symptoms of glucocorticoid deficiency, including fatigability, emaciation, and weight-loss induced by minor infection. He also had dysmorphic features, which comprised marfanoid habitus, arachnodactyly and putative craniosynostosis. The combination of these malformations substantially resembled that of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome. Direct sequencing of the CYPl7 gene did not reveal any significant aberrations in the exons or exon-intron boundaries. We speculate that the association of partial combined 17OHD with the Shprintzen-Goldberg phenotype in the present patient may result from an aberration of a hitherto unknown gene that controls both steroid hormone synthesis and skeletal development. (+info)