Injury to the first rib synchondrosis in a rugby footballer. (1/55)

Injuries to the first rib synchondrosis are uncommon in sport. The potential for serious complications following posterior displacement is similar to that seen with posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation. Clinical examination and plain radiography may not provide a definitive diagnosis. Computerised tomography is the most appropriate imaging modality if this injury is suspected. Posterior dislocation of the first rib costal cartilage with an associated fracture of the posterior sternal aspect of the synchondrosis has not been previously reported.  (+info)

Posterior sternoclavicular dislocations--a diagnosis easily missed. (2/55)

Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is a relatively rare injury and can be difficult to diagnose acutely. We report 3 cases of posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint who presented to the Accident & Emergency Department within a 3 month period. All 3 patients had sustained a significant injury to the shoulder region and complained of pain around the medial clavicle. Two patients had also complained of dysphagia following the injury. Plain X-rays of the shoulder and chest were reported as normal by junior and senior medical staff. The diagnosis was delayed until CT scans were performed, and once this was established, open reduction and stabilisation was performed.  (+info)

A 'safe' surgical technique for stabilisation of the sternoclavicular joint: a cadaveric and clinical study. (3/55)

In symptomatic patients with recurrent anterior sternoclavicular dislocation, surgery may be required to stabilise the joint. Posterior sternoclavicular dislocations may also require open reduction and stabilisation due to the complications that may arise. We present a new, 'safe' technique of surgical stabilisation of the sternoclavicular joint that is not technically demanding and does not require exposure of the first rib, as is often the case in other methods described. The repair was tested in cadavers before being employed in three patients and was found to be effective under both static and dynamic loading. The early clinical results prove encouraging.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of chronic dislocation of the sterno-clavicular joint. (4/55)

The costo-clavicular ligament is always ruptured in dislocation at the sterno-clavicular joint. Anterior, superior or posterior displacement of the medial end of the clavicle may occur. Acute dislocation usually responds to conservative treatment and operation is seldom required. Chronic, or recurrent, dislocation may cause pain and disability on strenuous activity and necessitate surgical treatment. The operation of tenodesis of the subclavius tendon with capsulorrhaphy described by Burrows (1951) has been adopted. The intraarticular meniscus is often damaged and displaced, and may block reduction; its removal is then necessary. In addition, a threaded Stinmann pin transfixing the joint has been found useful to maintain the stability of reduction. The operation has been performed on five patients, four of whom had excellent results. The fifth patient disrupted the repair in a drinking bout shortly after the operation.  (+info)

Pain referral from the sternoclavicular joint: a study in normal volunteers. (5/55)

OBJECTIVE: The sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) is commonly affected by rheumatological conditions. Case reports suggest that it may refer pain to distant areas, potentially leading to delays in diagnosis and inappropriately targeted investigations. Therefore, we studied the patterns of pain referral from the SCJ of nine healthy volunteers. METHODS: Hypertonic saline was injected into the SCJ of nine normal volunteers and the location of any resulting pain was noted, as was the effect of resisted shoulder abduction and flexion. Composite pain maps were then constructed from individual pain diagrams. RESULTS: An unpleasant, deep aching pain was produced locally in eight subjects and referred to distant sites in all subjects. Tests of shoulder movement had varied and inconstant effects. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the SCJ is capable of referring pain to areas distant from the joint. Knowledge of these referral patterns will enable the SCJ to be considered in patients with pain in these areas.  (+info)

Resection arthroplasty of the sternoclavicular joint for the treatment of primary degenerative sternoclavicular arthritis. (6/55)

We describe the mid-term clinical results of the surgical treatment of primary degenerative arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint in eight women. They had not responded to conservative treatment and underwent a limited resection arthroplasty. For pre- and postoperative clinical evaluation we used the Rockwood score for the sternoclavicular joint. Postoperatively, the Constant score was also determined. The mean follow-up was 31 months (10 to 82). The median Rockwood score increased from 6 to 12.5 points. The median postoperative Constant score was 87 (65 to 91). Four patients had an excellent, three a good, and one a poor result. All patients were pleased with the cosmetic result. Resection arthroplasty is an effective and safe treatment for chronic, symptomatic degenerative arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint with a high degree of patient satisfaction.  (+info)

Coracoclavicular joint: osteologic study of 1020 human clavicles. (7/55)

We examined 1020 dry clavicles from cadavers of Italian origin to determine the prevalence of the coracoclavicular joint (ccj), a diarthrotic synovial joint occasionally present between the conoid tubercle of the clavicle and the superior surface of the horizontal part of the coracoid process. Five hundred and nine clavicles from individuals of different ages were submitted to X-ray examination. Using radiography, we measured the entire length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve, on which the distance between the conoid tubercle and the coracoid process depends. We also used radiography to record the differences in prevalence of arthritis in two neighbouring joints, the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints. Of the 1020 clavicles, eight (0.8%) displayed the articular facet of the ccj. No statistical correlation was found between clavicular length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve. The prevalence of arthritis in clavicles with ccj was higher than that revealed in clavicles without ccj. The prevalence of ccj in the studied clavicles is lower than that observed in Asian cohorts. Furthermore, ccj is not conditioned by either length or sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve of the clavicle. Finally, the assumption that ccj is a predisposing factor for degenerative changes of neighbouring joints is statistically justified.  (+info)

Sternoclavicular joint infection in an adult without predisposing risk factors. (8/55)

Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) is an uncommon condition and it has been associated with numerous predisposing factors. We describe a rare case of SCJ infection due to Staphylococcus aureus in an adult without known underlying predisposing conditions and in which recovery was achieved with medical therapy alone.  (+info)