Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative staphylococci in restaurant workers from Kuwait City may be a potential cause of food poisoning. (1/73)

Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were isolated from the hands of food handlers in 50 restaurants in Kuwait City and studied for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, slime and resistance to antimicrobial agents. One or a combination of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B or C were produced by 6% of the isolates, with the majority producing enterotoxin B. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 was detected in c. 7% of the isolates; 47% produced slime. In all, 21% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and 11.2% were resistant to propamidine isethionate and mercuric chloride. There was no correlation between slime and toxin production or between slime production and antibiotic resistance. The detection of enterotoxigenic CNS on food handlers suggests that such strains may contribute to food poisoning if food is contaminated by them and held in conditions that allow their growth and elaboration of the enterotoxins. It is recommended that enterotoxigenic CNS should not be ignored when investigating suspected cases of staphylococcal food poisoning.  (+info)

Pyrogenic toxin superantigen site specificity in toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning in animals. (2/73)

Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes express pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) that are associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). Most PTSAgs cause TSS in deep-tissue infections, whereas only TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1) is associated with menstrual, vaginal TSS. In contrast, SFP has been linked only with staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Because of the differential abilities of PTSAgs to cause systemic or localized symptoms in a site-dependent manner, the present study was undertaken to assess the toxins' abilities to cross mucosal barriers. The activity of three PTSAgs when delivered orally, vaginally, or intravenously to rabbits and orally to monkeys was investigated. TSST-1 induced shock via all three routes in rabbits. Although active when administered intravenously, SEC1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPEA) did not cause symptoms when administered orally or vaginally. Only SEC1 induced emesis in the monkey feeding assay. TSST-1, albeit less stable than SEC1 and SPEA to pepsin, induced diarrhea in monkeys. Our results may explain the unique association of TSST-1 with menstrual TSS and why SPEA is only rarely associated with TSS after pharyngitis, despite being highly associated with TSS after subcutaneous infections. Finally, our studies indicate that enterotoxicity in SFP is not the result of superantigenicity.  (+info)

Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and coagulase gene restriction profile analysis techniques in the molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus. (3/73)

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and coagulase gene restriction profile (CRP) analysis techniques were used to analyze 71 Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from nine food-borne disease outbreaks. Twenty-two PFGE profiles and 11 CRPs were identified, with discrimination indices of 0.86 and 0.72, respectively. In addition, the variable regions of the coagulase genes of 39 isolates were sequenced and showed extensive identity, indicating that this is not an efficient alternative for the molecular typing of S. aureus.  (+info)

Risk factors in causing outbreaks of food-borne illness originating in schoollunch facilities in Japan. (4/73)

We reviewed records of all outbreaks of food-borne illnesses due to schoollunch in Japan from 1987 through 1996 to determine the risk factors causing these outbreaks. Major hazards in 269 outbreaks were Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Foods including uncooked or partially cooked items, salad or egg products presented a high risk in 62 outbreaks with confirmed food sources. Contaminated food items were involved in 29 incidents (46.8%); storage of foods for an extended period before serving in 29 incidents (46.8%), inadequate cooking and cross contamination in 21 incidents (33.9%) each; infected employees in nine incidents (14.5%).  (+info)

Reassessment of the coagulase and thermostable nuclease tests as means of identifying Staphylococcus aureus. (5/73)

A total of 91 enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus auerus isolated from foods and tested for production of coagulase and thermostable nuclease and the ability to ferment glucose and mannitol showed, with the exception of four strains, a complete correlation among these properties. A similar correlation was observed with 103 cultures of S. aureus isolated from clinical material. In all instances, the coagulase reactions were sufficiently strong to be scored at either the 3+ or 4+ levels. Presumptive staphylococcal cultures isolated during routine examination of foods and yielding 2+ coagulase reactions or lower were invariably negative for thermostable nuclease production. It is suggested that the thermostable nuclease test be performed on cultures with doubtful coagulase reactions before classifying them as S. aureus.  (+info)

An outbreak of community-acquired foodborne illness caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (6/73)

Infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasingly community acquired. We investigated an outbreak in which a food handler, food specimen, and three ill patrons were culture positive for the same toxin-producing strain of MRSA. This is the first report of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by community-acquired MRSA.  (+info)

Molecular subtyping of Staphylococcus aureus from an outbreak associated with a food handler. (7/73)

On 6 May 2000, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred at a high school, affecting 10 of the 356 students who attended the breakfast. Twenty-seven Staphylococcus aureus isolates, producing enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB-, or non-SEA-E, were recovered from 7 patients, 2 food handlers and left-overs. To investigate the outbreak, we genotyped the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three PCR-based techniques: inter-IS256 PCR typing, protein A gene (spa) typing, and coagulase gene restriction profile (CRP) analysis. Our results show that PFGE was the most discriminatory technique, whereas the three PCR-based techniques were insufficient in the discriminatory power to distinguish the S. aureus isolates from the outbreak. Based on the enterotoxin-producing types and the results of genotyping, three distinct types of strains (A1111, B2221 and N3221) were designated. Both the A1111 and B2221 strains were found in the specimens from the patients and a hand lesion of a food handler, suggesting that the source of contamination for the outbreak was most likely originated from a food handler.  (+info)

Occurrence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in food. (8/73)

Gastroenteritis is one of the most frequent microbial diseases, which is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins. In our study, the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B (SEA, SEB) and the presence of respective staphylococcal enterotoxin genes were investigated in the field S. aureus isolates obtained from foods and food industry manufactures in East Slovakia. Radioimmunoassay (RIA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot-blot hybridisation were used for examination. The ability to synthesise enterotoxins was found in 20 (39.2%) of the total number of 51 isolates. Production of SEA was recorded in 3 (5.9%), production of SEB in 12 (23.5%) and production SEA together with SEB in 5 (9.8%) staphylococcal isolates. Nine (47.4%) sheep cheese isolates of the total number of 19 produced enterotoxins, especially SEB (36.8%). S. aureus isolates from pasta were enterotoxigenic in 6 cases (33.3%). The synthesis of enterotoxins was not detected in Bryndza cheese and sausages isolates. One enterotoxigenic isolate was obtained from smears of technological equipment and 4 isolates from throat and nasal swabs. No differences in results were recorded between RIA and PCR as well as PCR and dot-blot hybridisation. Our results suggest that it is of special importance to follow the presence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in foodstuffs, especially for protecting the consumers from food poisoning.  (+info)