(1/4) Antioxidant activity of four endemic Stachys taxa.

Methanol extracts of aerial flowering parts of four endemic Stachys taxa: S. anisochila VIS. et PANCIC, S. beckeana DORFLER & HAYEK, S. plumosa GRISEB. and S. alpina L. ssp. dinarica MURB. were investigated on their antioxidant activity. The extracts were studied for total antioxidant activity (TAA), along with 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radical scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation (LP). High correlations between total phenolics content, TAA and scavenging DPPH radical indicate that polyphenols are the main antioxidants. All Stachys extracts, with the exception of S. plumosa, exhibited high anti-DPPH activity (IC50<50 microg/ml). In concentration range from 6.25 to 50 microg/ml, all extracts scavenged OH radical above 40%, with maximal inhibitions for S. anisochila, S. alpina ssp. dinarica and S. beckeana extracts of 50.22%, 50.94% and 64.97%, respectively. Only S. plumosa extract achieved maximal activity of 60.67% at 100 microg/ml. As for LP, IC50 values for S. beckeana and S. alpina ssp. dinarica extracts were 25.07 and 49.00 microg/ml, respectively, while S. anisochila and S. plumosa extracts did not reach 50% of LP inhibition.  (+info)

(2/4) TJN-259 improves mesangial lesions in experimental immunoglobulin A nephropathy in ddY mice.

TJN-259 is a chemical substance based on the structural features of the botanically derived ingredient acteoside. This study was performed in order to elucidate the antinephritic effects of TJN-259 in experimental immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. In this study, 28-week-old ddY mice were used as a spontaneous model of IgA nephropathy. With regard to spontaneous IgA nephropathy, we investigated the effects of TJN-259 administered from 28 to 40 weeks. In addition, an accelerated model of IgA nephropathy was experimentally induced in ddY mice by oral administration of bovine serum albumin, followed by reticuloendothelial blocking by colloidal carbon injection and heminephrectomy. At 10 weeks after the 3rd carbon injection, we also examined the effects of TJN-259 on accelerated IgA nephropathy. To investigate the effects of TJN-259 on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 production in accelerated IgA nephropathy, kidneys were isolated and measured TGF-beta1 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The administration of TJN-259 to mice with spontaneous IgA nephropathy decreased the incidence of mesangial expansion as well as the number of nuclei per glomerular cross-section in comparison with that of non-treated mice. In addition, TJN-259 treatment prevented the increase in the incidence of mesangial expansion, crescent formation, and segmental sclerosis in glomeruli in accelerated IgA nephropathy. TJN-259 also inhibited the increased immunostaining score of collagen type IV and TGF-beta1 in glomeruli of accelerated IgA nephropathy. Treatment with TJN-259 inhibited the increases in renal total and mature TGF-beta1 protein levels in accelerated type IgA nephropathy. TJN-259 failed to inhibit the increase in serum IgA levels in both models. These results suggest that TJN-259 was an effective treatment against IgA nephropathy in ddY mice, acting via the suppression of TGF-beta1 production in glomeruli.  (+info)

(3/4) Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Stachys lavandulifolia in mice.

Stachys lavandulifolia is used as the herbal tea and its wide and potent medical effects have been reported for the extract in animal studies. This study aimed to find the safety profile of the extract to find the appropriate doses for further human studies. The aerial parts of the plant were air-dried and the hydroalcoholic extract was obtained and concentrated by percolation method with 140 mg/ml concentration. To assess the toxicity profile of this extract, 60 female mice (30 cases, 30 controls, 24.8 +/- 2.1 g, 4-6 weeks) were administered the extract by oral gavages in acute (24 hrs), subacute (14 days) and subchronic (45 days) models. All clinical, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were assessed in appropriate midpoints and endpoints and compared with control group. Doses up to 140 mgkg were recognized as maximum tolerated dose in subchronic model. Abnormal changes in kidney and liver weight in treatment groups as well as the significant elevation of biochemical parameters in 45 days study has suggested the possible hepatic and renal toxicity potentials of this extract with doses upper than 140 mgkg. Doses up 70 mgkg could be considered as no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) and could be used in further clinical trials on the possible therapeutic effects of this plant.  (+info)

(4/4) Larvicidal activities of some Iranian native plants against the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi.

Malaria is considered a major health problem in Iran. There are different methods for vector control. In this study we tested the larvicidal effects of some Iranian plants. The methanolic extracts of 11 plants were prepared with percolation method. The larvicidal activities of them against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi were studied using World Health Organization standard method. All LC50 values of methanolic extracts of plants that we screened were lower than 300 ppm. The methanolic extract of aerial parts of Lawsonia inermis and Stachys byzantina showed high larvicidal activity with LC50 values 69.40 ppm and 103.28 ppm respectively. The results obtained from this study suggest that the methanolic extracts of these plants have larvicidal effects against Anopheles stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.  (+info)