A physiological evaluation of professional soccer players.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological functions of a professional soccer team in the North American Soccer League (NASL). Eighteen players were evaluated on cardiorespiratory function, endurance performance, body composition, blood chemistry, and motor fitness measures near the end of their competitive season. The following means were observed: age, 26 yrs; height, 176 cm; weight 75.5 kg; resting heart rate, 50 beats/min; maximum heart rate (MHR), 188 beats/min; maximum oxygen intake (VO2 max), 58.4 ml/kg-min-1; maximum ventilation (VEmax BTPS), 154 L/min; body fat, 9.59%; 12-min run, 1.86 miles; and Illinois agility run, 15.6 secs. Results on resting blood pressure, serum lipids, vital capacity, flexibility, upper body strength, and vertical jump tests were comparable to values found for the sedentary population. Comparing the results with previously collected data on professional American Football backs indicated that the soccer players were shorter; lighter in body weight; higher in VO2 max (4 ml/kg-min-1) and body fat (1.8%); and similar in MHR, VE max, and VC. The 12-min run scores were similar to the initial values observed for the 1970 Brazilian World Cup Team. The agility run results were superior to data collected from other groups. Their endurance capabilities, agility, and low percent of body fat clearly differentiate them from the sedentary population and show them to be similar to that of professional American football backs. (+info)
Sub maximal oxygen uptake related to fat free mass and lean leg volume in trained runners.
The sub maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) of 32 trained male middle and long distance runners aged 19.5-36.0 years was determined at five treadmill speeds. There was a significant linear relationship (p less than 0.01) between VO2 at each of the treadmill speeds and Fat-Free Mass (FFM) and Lean Leg Volume (LLV). To explain the relationship other factors are considered, the most important of which may be the mechanical configuration of muscle and mitochondrial function. (+info)
Medical cover at Scottish football matches: have the recommendations of the Gibson Report been met?
OBJECTIVES: To determine if doctors providing medical care at Scottish football stadiums meet the standards recommended by the Gibson Report. METHODS: A postal questionnaire and telephone follow up of doctors involved with the 40 Scottish League teams. RESULTS: 47% of the doctors had not attended any relevant resuscitation courses and 72% had no training in major incident management. CONCLUSIONS: The recommendations of the Gibson Report with regard to medical cover at football stadiums have not been fully implemented in Scotland. (+info)
Development of knowledge and reported use of sport science by elite New Zealand Olympic class sailors.
The objective of this study was to determine the change in elite dinghy sailor's knowledge and use of sport science, three years after the adoption of a sport science support (SSS) programme by Yachting New Zealand for its elite dinghy sailors. A questionnaire was administered to 28 (22 male, six female) elite sailors in April 1994 and to 33 (24 male and nine female) in March 1997 during a training camp for elite sailors. 15 of the sailors participated in 1994 and 1997. The questionnaire asked whether or not the sailors used a training race diary and inquired about their knowledge and use of sport science in the areas of nutrition, psychology and physical conditioning. In 1997, additional questions enquired about sailor's perception of sport science and its affect on their racing performance. Between April 1994 and March 1997, sailors received sport science support in nutrition, psychology and physical conditioning. Sailors reported a greater amount of fluid drunk on a four-hour sail in 1997 than in 1994 and a greater proportion of sailors ate a high carbohydrate meal after a race in 1997 than in 1994. In 1997, sailors reported feeling less anxiety before a race, and the sailors common to 1994 and 1997 reported feeling less sick before a race in 1997 than in 1994. Increases were observed in volume and intensity of physical training, and improvements were noticed in the chosen type of aerobic training in 1997. Most sailors believed that their knowledge and use of sport science has increased and that their increased use of sport science has led to improvements in racing performance. The results suggest that elite New Zealand sailors' use of sport science improved in the areas of nutrition, sports psychology and physical conditioning between 1994 and 1997. However, when the results were compared with those of Legg and Mackie (1999), it was evident that greater physical conditioning improvements had occurred between 1994 and 1995 than had been sustained since, while the majority of sailor's sport psychology improvements occurred between 1995 and 1997. Sailors reported fluid intake between 1994 and 1997 had steadily improved. The reason for sailor's change in emphasis on different areas of sport science over time may be a result of their adopting ideas with which they were most familiar (physical conditioning and nutrition) first, and then adopting the less widely understood discipline of sport psychology once they felt that they had mastered their use of physical conditioning and nutrition. This study indicates that sailors are beginning to understand the importance of personal preparation using sport science principles. (+info)
General practitioners' training for, interest in, and knowledge of sports medicine and its organisations.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the training and interest of a group of general practitioners in the area of sport and exercise medicine, and the organisations representing the specialty. DESIGN: A postal questionnaire using a Likert scale in a previously piloted set of questions. SUBJECTS: 275 general practitioners registered with the Northampton Regional Health Authority. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Responses to questions designed to assess training and interest in sport and exercise medicine. RESULTS: A response rate of 87.6% was achieved. It was found that 72.7% of the responding general practitioners felt inadequately trained to practice sport and exercise medicine. Some 76.0% would welcome more training and 36.4% felt that their undergraduate orthopaedic training was of no use in primary care. Many (63.6%) of the general practitioners believed that the current NHS cannot sustain sport and exercise medicine, and there was uncertainty as to whether it is currently a recognised specialty, although 60.4% felt that it should be. General practitioners listed lack of facilities (53.1%), lack of training (42.9%), and lack of time (38.2%) as the main problems in practicing sport and exercise medicine in primary care within the current NHS. CONCLUSIONS: General practitioners feel undertrained in sport and exercise medicine at both undergraduate and post-graduate level; they have a perceived need for more training and show an interest in the subject. There is scope for improving the value of undergraduate orthopaedic training. General practitioners wish to see sport and exercise medicine recognised as an NHS specialty but fear that this is not sustainable under current conditions. There is confusion among general practitioners about the current sport and exercise medicine organisations. (+info)
Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing.
In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. (+info)
The athlete's heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function.
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that depending on the type of exercise performed, 2 different morphological forms of athlete's heart may be distinguished: a strength-trained heart and an endurance-trained heart. Individual studies have not tested this hypothesis satisfactorily. METHODS AND RESULTS: The hypothesis of divergent cardiac adaptations in endurance-trained and strength-trained athletes was tested by applying meta-analytical techniques with the assumption of a random study effects model incorporating all published echocardiographic data on structure and function of male athletes engaged in purely dynamic (running) or static (weight lifting, power lifting, bodybuilding, throwing, wrestling) sports and combined dynamic and static sports (cycling and rowing). The analysis encompassed 59 studies and 1451 athletes. The overall mean relative left ventricular wall thickness of control subjects (0.36 mm) was significantly smaller than that of endurance-trained athletes (0.39 mm, P=0.001), combined endurance- and strength-trained athletes (0.40 mm, P=0.001), or strength-trained athletes (0.44 mm, P<0.001). There was a significant difference between the 3 groups of athletes and control subjects with respect to left ventricular internal diameter (P<0. 001), posterior wall thickness (P<0.001), and interventricular septum thickness (P<0.001). In addition, endurance-trained athletes and strength-trained athletes differed significantly with respect to mean relative wall thickness (0.39 versus 0.44, P=0.006) and interventricular septum thickness (10.5 versus 11.8 mm, P=0.005) and showed a trend toward a difference with respect to posterior wall thickness (10.3 versus 11.0 mm, P=0.078) and left ventricular internal diameter (53.7 versus 52.1 mm, P=0.055). With respect to cardiac function, there were no significant differences between athletes and control subjects in left ventricular ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and E/A ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this meta-analysis regarding athlete's heart confirm the hypothesis of divergent cardiac adaptations in dynamic and static sports. Overall, athlete's heart demonstrated normal systolic and diastolic cardiac functions. (+info)
Stages in the development of a research project: putting the idea together.
We have considered some of the most important factors involved in designing a viable study that will adequately address the research question. Although we do not profess to be experts in all aspects of the above, we have learned through experience that attention to many of the above points will help to avoid frustration during the experimental process and when the study is presented for external review and subsequent presentation and publication. Good luck in your research. (+info)