Colchicine inhibition of the first phase of amyloid synthesis in experimental animals.
Colchicine was found to inhibit the first phase of casein-induced synthesis of murine amyloid. When mice were treated with colchicine during the first 7 days of an amyloid induction regimen or when colchicine was given to the donor mice in a transfer model, the amyloidogenic stimulus of casein was blocked completely. Amyloid synthesis was however, not interrupted by the administration of colchicine during the last 7 days of the casein regimen nor by colchicine treatment of recipient mice in a transfer model. (+info)
Effectiveness of a vaccine against red sea bream iridoviral disease in a field trial test.
Since 1990, red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) has caused high mortalities in the summertime in cultured red sea bream Pagrus major in southwest Japan. To establish control measures for red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD), the effectiveness of a formalin-killed viral vaccine was evaluated in a field trial. Two groups each consisting of 1000 juvenile red sea bream were either intraperitoneally inoculated with vaccine (vaccinated group) or were not vaccinated (non-vaccinated group). After vaccination, the fish were held for 1 wk, then transferred to a marine net pen and observed for 12 wk. The cumulative mortalities caused by RSIVD in the vaccinated group or control group were 19.2 and 68.5%, respectively. Additionally, the presence of virus antigen in the spleen was investigated and body weight was measured 6 and 12 wk post vaccination. In the vaccinated group, viral antigen was not detected. The increase in body weight of vaccinated fish was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of control fish. These results suggest that the vaccine against RSIVD was effective in 1 field trial. (+info)
The real incidence of extracapsular (satellite) cysts of liver echinococcus.
BACKGROUND: The presence of extracapsular (Satellite) cysts in liver echinococcus granulosus is known for many years. In one of our previous studies of radiological (CT) material they were found to be present in 16% of cases. METHODS: In the present study the operative findings, in cases of total capsectomy (cystopericystectomy) or partial lobectomy are presented. RESULTS: The real incidence of these cysts in operative specimens was as high as 29,5%. They were present in 15 out of 51 totally excised cysts. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that satellite cysts are present more often than they are radiologically detected. As they can be incriminated as a cause of recurrence of the disease they must be excised en block with the main parasitic cysts, by means of more radical procedures such as cystopericystectomy or partial hepatectomy, whenever it is feasible. (+info)
Relationship between circulating antigen level and morbidity in Schistosoma mansoni-infected children evaluated by ultrasonography.
Ninety-eight Schistosoma mansoni-infected children from an endemic area in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt were evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography to determine liver and spleen sizes, grade of periportal fibrosis, and splenic vein diameter. Circulating antigen levels were measured using a double sandwich ELISA in which the sensitivity was 91.8% and specificity was > 99%, with no evidence of cross-reactivity with other parasites. No significant relationship was observed between antigen level and clinical stages of the disease as assessed by physical examination (P > 0.05). When ultrasound was used to stage disease, the mean antigen level was significantly higher among hepatosplenic cases than intestinal cases (P < 0.05). No difference in mean antigen levels were found between the splenic and hepatic cases. Furthermore, a direct correlation (P < 0.01) was observed between antigen level and disease severity as monitored by ultrasonography. Antigen level showed a positive correlation with the degree of periportal fibrosis (P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant increase in the percent of children who were antigen positive (> 80 ng/ml) was found in those with more severe periportal fibrosis (P < 0.001). The findings suggest that ultrasonography along with measurement of circulating antigen levels predict morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni. (+info)
Splenic myeloid metaplasia, histiocytosis, and hypersplenism in the dog (65 cases).
Splenectomy specimens from 65 dogs with severe, diffuse, sustained, and progressive splenomegaly were examined. The clinical signs, hematology, and serum chemistry values in for the dogs were not useful diagnostic features. Microscopic changes in the spleens were distinctive and consisted of 1) myeloid metaplasia, 2) histiocytosis, 3) erythrophagocytosis, and 4) thrombosis with segmental infarction. Ultrastructural features suggested proliferative changes in the splenic reticular cells and macrophages (reticular meshwork) that described a continuum from reactive changes associated with immunologic damage of erythrocytes to neoplastic proliferation of histiocytic components. Thirty percent of the dogs survived 12 months. Approximately one half (53%) of the dogs with complete postmortem evaluations showed multiorgan involvement with a tissue distribution and cell morphology consistent with histiocytic neoplasia. For the remaining dogs (47%), only splenic pathology was consistently present, and a specific cause of death was often not evident. Distinctive histologic changes in the splenic tissues-including mitotic activity, erythrophagocytosis, giant cell formation, thrombosis/ infarction, and the proportion and distribution of histiocytic and hematopoietic cells-were statistically evaluated for prognostic relevance. The presence of giant cells was the only reliable prognostic feature, and that was indicative of a fatal outcome. These descriptive changes of myeloid metaplasia in the canine spleen are compared with the human clinical and pathologic syndromes of 1) agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, 2) hemophagocytic syndromes, and 3) hypersplenism. These diseases in humans produce histopathologic changes in the spleen that are similar to those observed in the canine splenic tissue we examined in this study. (+info)
Pathology of the spleen in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Morphometric evaluation and extracellular matrix changes.
Histological, ultrastructural, morphometric and immunohistochemical data obtained from the study of spleens removed by splenectomy from 34 patients with advanced hepatosplenic schistosomiasis revealed that the main alterations were congestive dilatation of the venous sinuses and diffuse thickening of the splenic cords. Splenic cord thickening was due to an increase of its matrix components, especially type IV collagen and laminin, with the conspicuous absence of interstitial collagens, either of type I or type III. Deposition of interstitial collagens (types I and III) occurred in scattered, small focal areas of the red pulp, but in the outside of the walls of the venous sinuses, in lymph follicles, marginal zone, in the vicinity of fibrous trabeculae and in sidero-sclerotic nodules. However, fibrosis was not a prominent change in schistosomal splenomegaly and thus the designation "fibro-congestive splenomegaly" seems inadequate. Lymph follicles exhibited variable degrees of atrophy, hyperplasia and fibrous replacement, sometimes all of them seen in different follicles of the same spleen and even in the same examined section. Changes in white pulp did not seem to greatly contribute to increasing spleen size and weight, when compared to the much more significant red pulp enlargement. (+info)
Traumatic pseudocyst of the spleen.
Four patients with pseudocyst of the spleen gave histories of abdominal trauma. In one patient the pseudocyst had ruptured, necessitating emergency splenectomy 34 years after the original injury. In a second patient the pseudocyst was discovered incidentally, and was managed by spleen-preserving excision; and the third and fourth presented with abdominal pain and had splenectomy and spleen-preserving surgery, respectively. All patients with conservatively treated splenic injury are at risk of developing a pseudocyst of the spleen, and the lesion can be detected by computed tomography or ultrasound. When there are no symptoms the natural history is unknown; but if surgery is necessary, splenectomy can sometimes be avoided. (+info)
Videolaparoscopic approach of the splenic cyst: a case report.
The authors report a case of an asymptomatic 30-year-old female patient with an extensive cystic lesion continuous with the splenic parenchyma. A review of the literature and use of a videolaparoscopic approach to the treatment of these lesions is presented. (+info)