Profile of neurohumoral agents on mesenteric and intestinal blood flow in health and disease.
The mesenteric and intestinal blood flow is organized and regulated to support normal intestinal function, and the regulation of blood flow is, in part, determined by intestinal function itself. In the process of the development and adaptation of the intestinal mucosa for the support of the digestive processes and host defense mechanisms, and the muscle layers for propulsion of foodstuffs, a specialized microvascular architecture has evolved in each tissue layer. Compromised mesenteric and intestinal blood flow, which can be common in the elderly, may lead to devastating clinical consequences. This problem, which can be caused by vasospasm at the microvascular level, can cause intestinal ischaemia to any of the layers of the intestinal wall, and can initiate pathological events which promote significant clinical consequences such as diarrhea, abdominal angina and intestinal infarction. The objective of this review is to provide the reader with some general concepts of the mechanisms by which neurohumoral vasoactive substances influence mesenteric and intestinal arterial blood flow in health and disease with focus on transmural transport processes (absorption and secretion). The complex regulatory mechanisms of extrinsic (sympathetic-parasympathetic and endocrine) and intrinsic (enteric nervous system and humoral endocrine) components are presented. More extensive reviews of platelet function, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, the carcinoid syndrome, 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide regulation of vascular tone are presented in this context. The possible options of pharmacological intervention (e.g. vasodilator agonists and vasoconstrictor antagonists) used for the treatment of abnormal mesenteric and intestinal vascular states are also discussed. (+info
Homocysteine enhances neutrophil-endothelial interactions in both cultured human cells and rats In vivo.
Despite intense investigation, mechanisms linking the development of occlusive vascular disease with elevated levels of homocysteine (HCY) are still unclear. The vascular endothelium plays a key role in regulating thrombogenesis and thrombolysis. We hypothesized that vascular lesions in individuals with elevated plasma HCY may be related to a dysfunction of the endothelium triggered by HCY. We investigated the effect of HCY on human neutrophil adhesion to and migration through endothelial monolayers. We also examined the effect of HCY on leukocyte adhesion and migration in mesenteric venules of anesthetized rats. We found that pathophysiological concentrations of HCY in vitro induce increased adhesion between neutrophils and endothelial cells. This contact results in neutrophil migration across the endothelial layer, with concurrent damage and detachment of endothelial cells. In vivo, HCY infused in anesthetized rats caused parallel effects, increasing leukocyte adhesion to and extravasation from mesenteric venules. Our results suggest that extracellular H2O2, generated by adherent neutrophils and/or endothelial cells, is involved in the in vitro endothelial cell damage. The possibility exists that leukocyte-mediated changes in endothelial integrity and function may lead to the vascular disease seen in individuals with elevated plasma HCY. (+info
Inhibition of effects of flow on potassium permeability in single perfused frog mesenteric capillaries.
1. We have investigated the effects of various potential inhibitors on flow-dependent K+ permeability (PK) of single perfused mesenteric microvessels in pithed frogs. 2. Neither superfusion with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (10 or 100 micromol l-1), nor the addition of indomethacin (30 micromol l-1) to both perfusate and superfusate reduced the positive correlation between PK and flow velocity (U). 3. In the presence of agents known to raise intracellular levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (noradrenaline, 8-bromo-cAMP and a combination of forskolin and rolipram) the slope of the relation between PK and U was no longer significant, so that PK was no longer flow dependent. 4. These results confirm that the flow dependence of PK is a biological process and not an artefact of measurement and suggest a role for intracellular cAMP rather than nitric oxide or prostacyclin in the flow-dependent modulation of PK in frog mesenteric microvessels. (+info
Effect of hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body and regional fatty acid metabolism.
The effects of combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body, splanchnic, and leg fatty acid metabolism were determined in five volunteers. Catheters were placed in a femoral artery and vein and a hepatic vein. U-13C-labeled fatty acids were infused, once in the basal state and, on a different occasion, during infusion of dextrose (clamp; arterial glucose 8.8 +/- 0.5 mmol/l). Lipids and heparin were infused together with the dextrose to maintain plasma fatty acid concentrations at basal levels. Fatty acid availability in plasma and fatty acid uptake across the splanchnic region and the leg were similar during the basal and clamp experiments. Dextrose infusion decreased fatty acid oxidation by 51.8% (whole body), 47.4% (splanchnic), and 64.3% (leg). Similarly, the percent fatty acid uptake oxidized decreased at the whole body level (53 to 29%), across the splanchnic region (30 to 13%), and in the leg (48 to 22%) during the clamp. We conclude that, in healthy men, combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia inhibits fatty acid oxidation to a similar extent at the whole body level, across the leg, and across the splanchnic region, even when fatty acid availability is constant. (+info
Factors mediating the hemodynamic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in portal hypertensive rats.
Nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and glucagon have been implicated in promoting the hyperdynamic circulatory state of portal hypertension. Recent evidence also indicates that increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production is involved in the pathogenesis of this hemodynamic abnormality. This study was aimed at investigating in rats with portal vein stenosis (PVS) the effects on splanchnic hemodynamics of blocking circulating TNF-alpha and the factors mediating the vascular action of this cytokine in this setting. Anti-TNF-alpha polyclonal antibodies or placebo was injected into rats (n = 96) before and 4 days after PVS (short-term inhibition) and at 24 h and 4, 7, 10 days after PVS (long-term inhibition). Short-term TNF-alpha inhibition reduced portal venous inflow and cardiac index and increased splanchnic and systemic resistance. Portal pressure was unchanged, but portal-systemic shunting was decreased. After long-term TNF-alpha inhibition, portal venous inflow and portal pressure were unchanged, but arterial pressure and systemic resistance rose significantly. Anti-TNF-alpha PVS rats exhibited lower increments of systemic resistance after Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin administration and lower serum levels of TNF-alpha, nitrates-nitrites, and 6-keto-PGF1alpha, both over the short and the long term. Serum glucagon levels rose after long-term inhibition. In conclusion, the specific role played by TNF-alpha in the development of the hyperdynamic state of portal hypertension appears to be mainly mediated through an increased release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Maintenance of the splanchnic hyperemia after long-term TNF-alpha inhibition could be due to a compensatory release of glucagon. (+info
Nitric oxide mediates sympathetic vasoconstriction at supraspinal, spinal, and synaptic levels.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the level of the sympathetic nervous system in which nitric oxide (NO) mediates regional sympathetic vasoconstriction and to determine whether neural mechanisms are involved in vasoconstriction after NO inhibition. Ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium), alpha1-receptor blockade (prazosin), and spinal section at T1 were used to study sympathetic involvement. NO was blocked with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Regional blood flow in the mesenteric and renal arteries and terminal aorta was monitored by electromagnetic flowmetry in conscious rats. L-NAME (3-5 mg/kg iv) increased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance. Ganglionic blockade (25 mg/kg iv) significantly reduced the increase in resistance in the mesentery and kidney in intact and spinal-sectioned rats. Ganglionic blockade significantly decreased hindquarter resistance in intact rats but not in spinal-sectioned rats. Prazosin (200 micrograms/kg iv) significantly reduced the increased hindquarter resistance. We concluded that NO suppresses sympathetic vasoconstriction in the mesentery and kidney at the spinal level, whereas hindquarter tone is mediated at supraspinal and synaptic levels. (+info
Hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics and renal blood flow and function in rats with liver failure.
BACKGROUND: Massive liver necrosis, characteristic of acute liver failure, may affect hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics, and contribute to the alterations in renal haemodynamics and function. AIMS: To investigate the relation between hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics, including portal systemic shunting, and renal blood flow and function in rats with acute liver failure. METHODS: Liver failure was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1.1 g/kg of D(+)-galactosamine hydrochloride. The parameters assessed included; systemic, hepatosplanchnic, and renal blood flow (57Co microsphere method); portal-systemic shunting and intrarenal shunting (consecutive intrasplenic, intraportal, or renal arterial injections of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate and 99mTc albumin microspheres); arterial blood pressure and portal pressure; renal function; and liver function (liver function tests and 14C aminopyrine breath test). RESULTS: Progressive liver dysfunction was accompanied by the development of a hyperdynamic circulation, a highly significant decrease in renal blood flow and function, and an increase in intrarenal shunting 36, 42, and 48 hours after administration of D-galactosamine. The alterations in renal blood flow and function were accompanied by significant increases in portal pressure, portal venous inflow, and intrahepatic portal systemic shunting in galactosamine treated rats compared with controls. There was a significant correlation between changes in renal blood flow and changes in portal pressure, intrahepatic portal systemic shunting, and deterioration in liver function (r = 0.8, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that both increased intrahepatic portal systemic shunting and hepatocyte impairment may contribute to alterations in renal haemodynamics and function. (+info
Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of central corticotropin-releasing factor.
Immune activation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) provides a negative feedback mechanism to modulate peripheral inflammatory responses. We investigated whether central CRF attenuates endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and leukocyte recruitment during endotoxemia in rats and determined its mechanisms of action. As measured by intravital microscopy, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a dose-dependent increase in leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and emigration in mesenteric venules, which was associated with upregulation of endothelial ICAM-1 expression. Intracisternal injection of CRF abrogated both the increased expression of ICAM-1 and leukocyte recruitment. Intravenous injection of the specific CRF receptor antagonist astressin did not modify leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions induced by a high dose of LPS but enhanced leukocyte adhesion induced by a low dose. Blockade of endogenous glucocorticoids but not alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) receptors reversed the inhibitory action of CRF on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions during endotoxemia. In conclusion, cerebral CRF blunts endothelial upregulation of ICAM-1 and attenuates the recruitment of leukocytes during endotoxemia. The anti-inflammatory effects of CRF are mediated by adrenocortical activation and additional mechanisms independent of alpha-MSH. (+info