Site-directed spin labeling study of subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of small heat-shock proteins. Comparison of the oligomer symmetry in alphaA-crystallin, HSP 27, and HSP 16.3. (1/1997)

Site-directed spin labeling was used to investigate quaternary interactions along a conserved sequence in the alpha-crystallin domain of alphaA-crystallin, heat-shock protein 27 (HSP 27), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat-shock protein (HSP 16.3). In previous work, it was demonstrated that this sequence in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27 forms a beta-strand involved in subunit contacts. In this study, the symmetry and geometry of the resulting interface were investigated. For this purpose, the pattern of spin-spin interactions was analyzed, and the number of interacting spins was determined in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27. The results reveal a 2-fold symmetric interface consisting of two beta-strands interacting near their N termini in an antiparallel fashion. Remarkably, subunit interactions along this interface persist when the alpha-crystallin domains are expressed in isolation. Because this domain in alphaA-crystallin forms dimers and tetramers, it is inferred that interactions along this interface mediate the formation of a basic dimeric unit. In contrast, in HSP 16.3, spin-spin interactions are observed at only one site near the C terminus of the sequence. Furthermore, cysteine substitutions at residues flanking the N terminus resulted in the dissociation of the oligomeric structure. Analysis of the spin-spin interactions and size exclusion chromatography indicates a 3-fold symmetric interface. Taken together, our results demonstrate that subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of mammalian small heat-shock proteins assemble a basic building block of the oligomeric structure. Sequence divergence in this domain results in variations in the size and symmetry of the quaternary structure between distant members of the small heat-shock protein family.  (+info)

The role of proline and glycine in determining the backbone flexibility of a channel-forming peptide. (2/1997)

Alamethicin is a helical 20-amino acid voltage-gated channel-forming peptide, which is known to exhibit segmental flexibility in solution along its backbone near alpha-methylalanine (MeA)-10 and Gly-11. In an alpha-helical configuration, MeA at position 10 would normally hydrogen-bond with position 14, but the presence of proline at this position prevents the formation of this interhelical hydrogen bond. To determine whether the presence of proline at position 14 contributes to the flexibility of this helix, two analogs of alamethicin were synthesized, one with proline 14 replaced by alanine and another with both proline 14 and glycine 11 replaced by alanine. The C-termini of these peptides were derivatized with a proxyl nitroxide, and paramagnetic enhancements produced by the nitroxide on the Calpha protons were used to estimate r-6 weighted distances between the nitroxide and the backbone protons. When compared to native alamethicin, the analog lacking proline 14 exhibited similar C-terminal to Calpha proton distances, indicating that substitution of proline alone does not alter the flexibility of this helix; however, the subsequent removal of glycine 11 resulted in a significant increase in the averaged distances between the C- and N-termini. Thus, the G-X-X-P motif found in alamethicin appears to be largely responsible for mediating high-amplitude bending motions that have been observed in the central helical domain of alamethicin in methanol. To determine whether these substitutions alter the channel behavior of alamethicin, the macroscopic and single-channel currents produced by these analogs were compared. Although the substitution of the G-X-X-P motif produces channels with altered characteristics, this motif is not essential to achieve voltage-dependent gating or alamethicin-like behavior.  (+info)

Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. (3/1997)

The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin.  (+info)

Antioxidative activity of 4-oxy- and 4-hydroxy-nitroxides in tissues and erythrocytes from rats. (4/1997)

AIM: To compare the activities of antioxidation of 4-oxy- and 4-hydroxy-nitroxides in tissues and RBC from rats. METHODS: The homogenates of liver, heart, and kidneys of rats were used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) formation using TBA colorimetric method. H2O2-caused hemolysis was measured spectrometrically. Superoxide anion from zymosan-stimulated neutrophils of rats was assayed by NBT reduction method. RESULTS: Nitroxide free radicals OTMPO and HTMPO inhibited MDA generation caused by .OH generation system (MIC 10.5 and 21 mumol.L-1, respectively), antagonized hemolysis induced by H2O2 (MIC: 338 and 168 mumol.L-1, respectively), but did not affect O2- formation from activated neutrophils. 1-Hydroxyl compounds OTMPOH and HTMPOH possessed similarly potent antilipoperoxidative activities. But nonfree radical OTMP and HTMP had no effect on peroxidation of tissues. CONCLUSION: Nitroxides exert their antilipoperoxidative effect by specifically scavenging .OH free radicals in biological system. Trapping of .OH free radicals by nitroxides is not by reduction of NO. group in nitroxides. Both NO. group and NOH group are essential active groups.  (+info)

Lipid exchange between mixed micelles of phospholipid and triton X-100. (5/1997)

If phospholipase catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipid dissolved in a detergent mixed micelle is limited to the phospholipid carried by a single micelle, then hydrolysis ceases upon exhaustion of that pool. However, if the rate of phospholipid exchange between micelles exceeds the catalytic rate then all of the phospholipid is available for hydrolysis. To determine phospholipid availability we studied the exchange of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine between mixed micelles of phospholipid and non-ionic Triton detergents by both stopped-flow fluorescence-recovery and nuclear magnetic resonance-relaxation techniques. Stopped-flow analysis was performed by combining mixed micelles of Triton and phospholipid with mixed micelles that contained the fluorescent phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-(12-[{7-nitro-2-1, 3-benzoxadiazo-4-yl}amino]dodecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (P-2-NBD-PC). The concentration dependence of fluorescence recovery suggested a second-order exchange mechanism that was saturable. The true second-order rate constant depends on the specific mechanism for exchange, which was not determined in this study, but the rate constant will be on the order of 106 to 107 M-1s-1. Incorporation of 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-doxylstearoyl)phosphatidylcholine into micelles increased the rate of proton relaxation and gave a limiting relaxation time of 1.3 ms. The results demonstrate that phospholipid exchange was rapid and that the phospholipid content of a single micelle did not limit the rate of phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipases.  (+info)

Cycloheximide and 4-OH-TEMPO suppress chloramphenicol-induced apoptosis in RL-34 cells via the suppression of the formation of megamitochondria. (6/1997)

Toxic effects of chloramphenicol, an antibiotic inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, on rat liver derived RL-34 cell line were completely blocked by a combined treatment with substances endowed with direct or indirect antioxidant properties. A stable, nitroxide free radical scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, and a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suppressed in a similar manner the following manifestations of the chloramphenicol cytotoxicity: (1) Oxidative stress state as evidenced by FACS analysis of cells loaded with carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and Mito Tracker CMTH2MRos; (2) megamitochondria formation detected by staining of mitochondria with MitoTracker CMXRos under a laser confocal microscopy and electron microscopy; (3) apoptotic changes of the cell detected by the phase contrast microscopy, DNA laddering analysis and cell cycle analysis. Since increases of ROS generation in chloramphenicol-treated cells were the first sign of the chloramphenicol toxicity, we assume that oxidative stress state is a mediator of above described alternations of RL-34 cells including MG formation. Pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide or 4-hydroxy-2,2, 6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, which is known to be localized into mitochondria, inhibited the megamitochondria formation and succeeding apoptotic changes of the cell. Protective effects of cycloheximide, which enhances the expression of Bcl-2 protein, may further confirm our hypothesis that the megamitochondria formation is a cellular response to an increased ROS generation and raise a possibility that antiapoptotic action of the drug is exerted via the protection of the mitochondria functions.  (+info)

Electron paramagnetic resonance reveals altered topography of the active center gorge of acetylcholinesterase after binding of fasciculin to the peripheral site. (7/1997)

Fasciculin, a peptidic toxin from snake venom, inhibits mammalian and fish acetylcholinesterases (AChE) by binding to the peripheral site of the enzyme. This site is located at the rim of a narrow, deep gorge which leads to the active center triad, located at its base. The proposed mechanisms for AChE inhibition by fasciculin include allosteric events resulting in altered conformation of the AChE active center gorge. However, a fasciculin-induced altered topography of the active center gorge has not been directly demonstrated. Using electron paramagnetic resonance with the spin-labeled organophosphate 1-oxyl-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinylethylphosphorofluoridate (EtOSL) specifically bound to the catalytic serine of mouse AChE (mAChE), we show that bound fasciculin on mAChE slows down, but does not prevent phosphorylation of the active site serine by EtOSL and protects the gorge conformation against thermal denaturation. Most importantly, a restricted freedom of motion of the spin label bound to the fasciculin-associated mAChE, compared to mAChE, is evidenced. Molecular models of mAChE and fasciculin-associated mAChE with tethered EtOSL enantiomers indicate that this restricted motion is due to greater proximity of the S-EtOSL nitroxide radical to the W86 residue in the fasciculin-associated enzyme. Our results demonstrate a topographical alteration indicative of a restricted conformation of the active center gorge of mAChE with bound fasciculin at its rim.  (+info)

Surface exposure of the methionine side chains of calmodulin in solution. A nitroxide spin label and two-dimensional NMR study. (8/1997)

Binding of calcium to calmodulin (CaM) causes a conformational change in this ubiquitous calcium regulatory protein that allows the activation of many target proteins. Met residues make up a large portion of its hydrophobic target binding surfaces. In this work, we have studied the surface exposure of the Met residues in the apo- and calcium-bound states of CaM in solution. Complexes of calcium-CaM with synthetic peptides derived from the CaM-binding domains of myosin light chain kinase, constitutive nitric-oxide synthase, and CaM-dependent protein kinase I were also studied. The surface exposure was measured by NMR by studying the effects of the soluble nitroxide spin label, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy, on the line widths and relaxation rates of the Met methyl resonances in samples of biosynthetically 13C-methyl-Met-labeled CaM. The Met residues move from an almost completely buried state in apo-CaM to an essentially fully exposed state in Ca2+4-CaM. Binding of two Ca2+ to the C-terminal lobe of CaM causes full exposure of the C-terminal Met residues and a partial exposure of the N-terminal Met side chains. Binding of the three target peptides blocks the access of the nitroxide surface probe to nearly all Met residues, although the mode of binding is distinct for the three peptides studied. These data show that calcium binding to CaM controls the surface exposure of the Met residues, thereby providing the switch for target protein binding.  (+info)