Independent prognostic information provided by sphygmomanometrically determined pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of baseline pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure to mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. BACKGROUND: Increased conduit vessel stiffness increases pulse pressure and pulsatile load, potentially contributing to adverse outcomes in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Pulse and mean arterial pressure were analyzed for their effect on mortality, adjusting for other modifiers of risk, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of data collected from 6,781 patients randomized into the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction trials. RESULTS: Pulse and mean arterial pressure were related positively to each other, age, ejection fraction and prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and inversely to prior myocardial infarction and beta-adrenergic blocking agent use. Higher pulse pressure was associated with increased prevalence of female gender, greater calcium channel blocking agent, digoxin and diuretic use, lower heart rate and a higher rate of reported smoking history. Higher mean arterial pressure was associated with higher heart rate, lower calcium channel blocker and digoxin use and lower New York Heart Association functional class. Over a 61-month follow-up 1,582 deaths (1,397 cardiovascular) occurred. In a multivariate analysis adjusting for the above covariates and treatment assignment, higher pulse pressure remained an independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality (total mortality relative risk, 1.05 per 10 mm Hg increment; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.10; p = 0.02). Mean arterial pressure was inversely related to total and cardiovascular mortality (total mortality relative risk, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 0.94; p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: One noninvasive blood pressure measurement provides two independent prognostic factors for survival. Increased conduit vessel stiffness, as assessed by pulse pressure, may contribute to increased mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, independent of mean arterial pressure. (+info)
The influence of experience on the reproducibility of the ankle-brachial systolic pressure ratio in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
OBJECTIVES: to estimate the intra-observer variability of the measurement of the ankle-brachial systolic pressure index (ABPI) and to compare the reproducibility of the measurements by experienced vascular laboratory assistants and by less-experienced general practice personnel. DESIGN: repeated measurement of ABPI by general practitioners (GPs), GP-assistants and vascular laboratory assistants using a pocket Doppler device and a random-zero sphygmomanometer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: ABPI was measured in six patients with various degrees of PAOD by two experienced observers (vascular laboratory assistants) and by 24 less-experienced observers (18 practice assistants, six GPs). RESULTS: the total number of measurements was 354. The overall intra-observer variability estimate was 11.8% ABPI. The intra-observer variability was 7.3% in the experienced observers and 12.0% in the less-experienced observers. The difference of variability between experienced and less-experienced observers was significant. CONCLUSIONS: the ABPI is suitable in follow-up studies where repeated measurements are needed. Differences between measurements can be minimised by performing repeated measurements or by using more experienced observers. (+info)
Muscle and skin sympathetic nerve traffic during the "white-coat" effect.
BACKGROUND: Sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurements induce an alerting reaction and thus an increase in the patient's blood pressure and heart rate. Whether and to what extent this "white-coat" effect is accompanied by detectable changes in sympathetic nerve traffic has never been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 mild untreated essential hypertensives (age 37.9+/-3. 8 years, mean+/-SEM), we measured arterial blood pressure (by Finapres), heart rate (by ECG), and postganglionic muscle and skin sympathetic nerve activity via microneurography. Measurements were performed with the subject supine during (1) a 15-minute control period, (2) a 10-minute visit by a doctor unfamiliar to the patient who was in charge of measuring his or her blood pressure by sphygmomanometry, and (3) a 15-minute recovery period after the doctor's departure. The entire procedure was performed twice at a 45-minute interval to obtain, in separate periods, muscle or skin sympathetic nerve traffic recordings, whose sequence was randomized. The doctor's visit induced a sudden, marked, and prolonged pressor and tachycardic response, accompanied by a significant increase in skin sympathetic nerve traffic (+38.6+/-6.7%, P<0.01). In contrast, muscle sympathetic nerve traffic was significantly inhibited (-25. 5+/-4.1%, P<0.01). All changes persisted throughout the doctor's visit and, with the exception of skin sympathetic nerve traffic, showed a slow rate of disappearance after the doctor's departure. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the pressor and tachycardic responses to the alerting reaction that accompanies sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurement is characterized by a behavior of the adrenergic nervous system that causes muscle sympathoinhibition and skin sympathoexcitation. (+info)
Optimising the performance of intermittent pneumatic compression devices.
OBJECTIVES: this study was designed to determine whether an intermittent pneumatic compression device (IPC) with an increased maximal inflation pressure, a decreased time to maximal pressure and a longer duration of compression would improve venous return compared to a standard IPC device. METHODS: thirty limbs in 15 volunteers without evidence of venous disease were studied using duplex scanning at rest and during the application of two different IPC devices with different compression parameters. The first device IPC-1 (SCD 5325, Kendall) has a six-chambered cuff applying 45 mmHg after 12 s, sequentially from ankle to thigh followed by 60 s of non-compression. The second device IPC-2 (Vena-Assist(R), ACI Medical) has a foot, ankle and calf cuff, applies a pressure of 80 mmHg, has a pressure rise time of 0.3 s, maintains inflation for 5.5 s, and has a cycling time of 1 min. Peak venous velocity and acceleration time were measured at rest and during the IPC application. Measurements were obtained in supine position from the common femoral vein 1 cm above the saphenofemoral junction to include the entire venous outflow from the limb. RESULTS: peak venous velocity at rest was significantly higher in the right limb than in the left limb (26+/-7.2 vs. 22+/-5.7 cm/s, p<0.01). Peak venous velocity was significantly increased by both IPC devices (p <0.0001). IPC-2 achieved significantly higher peak venous velocity than IPC-1 (55.1+/-17.8 vs. 37.4+/-6.9 cm/s, p<0.0001). Acceleration time was also found to be significantly shorter (370+/-93.4 vs. 560+/-83.5 ms, p<0.0001) in IPC-2 than in IPC-1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: we have demonstrated that progressive inflation at the foot, ankle and calf, increasing maximal inflation pressure and decreasing time to maximal pressure result in increased venous return. These changes may improve the efficacy of IPC devices in the prevention of deep-venous thrombosis (DVT) formation. (+info)
Arterial stiffness as underlying mechanism of disagreement between an oscillometric blood pressure monitor and a sphygmomanometer.
Oscillometric blood pressure devices tend to overestimate systolic blood pressure and underestimate diastolic blood pressure compared with sphygmomanometers. Recent studies indicate that discrepancies in performance between these devices may differ between healthy and diabetic subjects. Arterial stiffness in diabetics could be the underlying factor explaining these differences. We studied differences between a Dinamap oscillometric blood pressure monitor and a random-zero sphygmomanometer in relation to arterial stiffness in 1808 healthy elderly subjects. The study was conducted within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study of subjects aged 55 years and older. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure differences between a Dinamap and a random-zero sphygmomanometer were related to arterial stiffness, as measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Increased arterial stiffness was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings by the Dinamap compared with the random-zero sphygmomanometer, independent of age, gender, and average mean blood pressure level of both devices. The beta-coefficient (95% CI) was 0.25 (0.00 to 0.50) mm Hg/(m/s) for the systolic blood pressure difference and 0.35 (0.20 to 0.50) mm Hg/(m/s) for the diastolic blood pressure difference. The results indicate that a Dinamap oscillometric blood pressure device, in comparison to a random-zero sphygmomanometer, overestimates systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings in subjects with stiff arteries. (+info)
The efficacy of the new SCD response compression system in the prevention of venous stasis.
OBJECTIVE: The current commercially available sequential intermittent pneumatic compression device used for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis has a constant cycle of 11 seconds' compression and 60 seconds' deflation. This deflation period ensures that the veins are filled before the subsequent cycle begins. It has been suggested that in some positions (eg, semirecumbent or sitting) and with different patients (eg, those with venous reflux), refilling of the veins may occur much earlier than 60 seconds, and thus a more frequent cycle may be more effective in expelling blood proximally. The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of a new sequential compression system (the SCD Response Compression System), which has the ability to detect the change in the venous volume and to respond by initiating the subsequent cycle when the veins are substantially full. METHODS: In an open controlled trial at an academic vascular laboratory, the SCD Response Compression System was tested against the existing SCD Sequel Compression System in 12 healthy volunteers who were in supine, semirecumbent, and sitting positions. The refilling time sensed by the device was compared with that determined from recordings of femoral vein flow velocity by the use of duplex ultrasound scan. The total volume of blood expelled per hour during compression was compared with that produced by the existing SCD system in the same volunteers and positions. RESULTS: The refilling time determined automatically by the SCD Response Compression System varied from 24 to 60 seconds in the subjects tested, demonstrating individual patient variation. The refilling time (mean +/- SD) in the sitting position was 40.6 +/- 10. 0 seconds, which was significantly longer (P <.001) than that measured in the supine and semirecumbent positions, 33.8 +/- 4.1 and 35.6 +/- 4.9 seconds, respectively. There was a linear relationship between the duplex scan-derived refill time (mean of 6 readings per leg) and the SCD Response device-derived refill time (r = 0.85, P <. 001). The total volume of blood (mean +/- SD) expelled per hour by the existing SCD Sequel device in the supine, semirecumbent, and sitting positions was 2.23 +/- 0.90 L/h, 2.47 +/- 0.86 L/h, and 3.28 +/- 1.24 L/h, respectively. The SCD Response device increased the volume expelled to 3.92 +/- 1.60 L/h or a 76% increase (P =.001) in the supine position, to 3.93 +/- 1.55 L/h or a 59% increase (P =. 001) in the semirecumbent position, and to 3.97 +/- 1.42 L/h or a 21% increase (P =.026) in the sitting position. CONCLUSIONS: By achieving more appropriately timed compression cycles over time, the new SCD Response System is effective in preventing venous stasis by means of a new method that improves on the clinically documented effectiveness of the existing SCD system. Further studies testing its potential for improved efficacy in preventing deep venous thrombosis are justified. (+info)
An in vitro cell culture system to study the influence of external pneumatic compression on endothelial function.
PURPOSE: External pneumatic compression (EPC) is an effective means of prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis. However, its mechanism remains poorly understood. Understanding of the biological consequences of EPC is an important goal for optimizing performance of the EPC-generating device and providing guidance for clinical use. We present a new in vitro cell culture system (Venous Flow Simulator) that simulates blood flow and vessel collapse conditions during EPC, and we examine the influence of these factors on endothelial cell (EC) fibrinolytic activity and vasomotor function. METHODS: An in vitro cell culture system was designed to replicate the hemodynamic shear stress and vessel wall strain associated with induced blood flow during different modes of EPC. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured in the system and subjected to intermittent flow, vessel collapse, or a combination of the two. The biologic response was assessed through changes in EC morphology and the expression of fibrinolytic factors tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, profibrinolytic receptor (annexin II), and vasomotor factors endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1. RESULTS: The cells remained attached and viable after being subjected to intermittent pulsatile flow (F) and tube compression (C). In F and F + C, cells aligned in the direction of flow after 6 hours. Northern blot analysis of messenger RNA shows that there is an upregulation of tissue plasminogen activator expression (1.95 +/- 0.19 in F and 2.45 +/- 0.46 in FC) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (2.08 +/- 0.25 in F and 2.11 +/- 0.21 in FC). Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, annexin II, and endothelin 1 show no significant change under any experimental conditions. The results also show that pulsatile flow, more than vessel compression, influences EC morphology and function. CONCLUSION: Effects on ECs of intermittent flow and vessel collapse, either individually or simultaneously, were simulated with an in vitro system of new design. Initial results show that intermittent flow associated with EPC upregulates EC fibrinolytic potential and influences factors altering vasomotor tone. The system will facilitate future studies of EC function during EPC. (+info)
Evaluation of normal and large sphygmomanometer cuffs using the Omron 705CP.
Sphygmomanometers are usually sold with a single cuff though some are supplied with a short cuff as standard and offer a longer one for larger arms. However, data on the differences in measurements taken with different cuffs applied to different sized arms are conflicting and this study set out to investigate the difference between those taken with 'normal' and 'large' cuffs in arms 28 cm or more in circumference. We avoided observer error by using a semi-automatic digital sphygmomanometer, the Omron 705CP. The 22 subjects employed were selected from one general practice as having a range of previous office blood pressures and a variety of arm sizes above 28 cm in circumference. Omron 'normal' and 'large' cuffs were used alternately, taking five blood pressures with each to a total of 30 readings per patient, resulting in 660 readings, 330 with each cuff. There were mean systolic/diastolic differences of 2.7/3.8 (s.d.s 4.7/2.8) for all subjects. These were greater in the normotensive. When divided into two groups with systolic blood pressures below and equal to or above 140 mm Hg, differences were -1.9/3.0 to 7.1/4.7. From the results of the study, we recommend that large cuffs should be used for all patients with an arm circumference of 28 cm or above but the Omron large cuff still requires formal validation. (+info)