(1/29) Endoscopic sphincterotomy in the treatment of cholangiopancreatic diseases.
AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in the treatment of choledocholithiasis and stenosing papillitis. METHODS: A total of 1 026 patients undergoing EST during July 1983 to May 2003 at the institute were retrospectively analyzed. Chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 63 (6.1%), cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis in 549 (53.5%), stones in residual biliary duct in 249 (24.3%), stenosing papillitis in 228 (22.2%). In patients with simple stenosing papillitis, most incisions were within 0.5-1 cm in length. As for patients with chronic pancreatitis simultaneously, selective pancreatic sphincterotomy was performed, and incision was within 0.5-0.8 cm in length. For stones less than 1 cm, incision was from 1 to 1.5 cm, and for those larger than 1 cm, incision ranged from 1.5 to 3 cm. For stones more than 2 cm in diameter, detritus basket rather than simple incision was chosen. RESULTS: Of the 798 patients with choledocholithiasis, 764 (93.5%) had successful stone clearance, 215 (94.3%) out of 228 cases of stenosing papillitis were cured totally, while 63 had chronic pancreatitis developed from stenosing papillitis, 57 (90.1%) had sound remission of symptoms, though membranous stenosis emerged in 13 of 57 which was treated with balloon dilatation. After the operation, only 21 cases (2.1%) had complications such as severe pancreatitis and incision bleeding. None of the patients died. CONCLUSION: EST is an ideal surgical management with mini-invasion in the treatment of choledocholithiasis and stenosing papillitis. (+info)
(2/29) The underestimated role of opiates in patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction after cholecystectomy.
AIMS: Pain recurrence after cholecystectomy is often attributed to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, whose diagnostic criteria and treatments remain uncertain. We performed a retrospective study to assess the possible precipitating role of opiate ingestion in this setting. METHODS: The retrospective study of the files of 147 consecutive patients investigated for post-cholecystectomy syndrome by endoscopic ultrasonography and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography yielded 37 cases of suspected biliary-type sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (30%) with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction had taken opiate-containing drugs 15 minutes to two hours (median 1 hr) before the onset of pain ("Opiate group"). When compared with the 23 patients having not taken opiates ("Non Opiate Group"), they were significantly younger (47 vs. 60 yrs), had a narrower common bile duct (5.0 vs. 7.7 mm), but had similar biochemical abnormalities and belonged to the same Milwaukee's classes, mainly class II. None of the patients in the "Opiate group" were submitted to retrograde cholangiography or endoscopic sphincterotomy vs. 52% and 39%, respectively of the patients of the "Non-Opiate Group". After a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, there were three recurrences of biliary-type pain (1 choledochal stone, and 2 suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction) in the "Opiate Group", and 2 (1 choledochal stone, 1 after codeine intake) in the "Non-Opiate Group". CONCLUSIONS: Opiate intake is a frequent cause of suspicion of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction after cholecystectomy, especially in young patients with a narrow common bile duct. A careful history taking is essential to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful procedures. (+info)
(3/29) Evaluation of the biliary tract in patients with functional biliary symptoms.
The aim of this paper was to describe functional biliary syndromes and methods for evaluation of the biliary tract in these patients. Functional biliary symptoms can be defined as biliary symptoms without demonstrable organic substrate. Two main syndromes exist: Gallbladder dysfunction and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. The most important investigative tools are cholescintigraphy and endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry. In gallbladder dysfunction a scintigraphic gallbladder ejection fraction below 35% can select patients who will benefit from cholecystectomy. Endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry is considered the gold standard in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction but recent development in scintigraphic methods is about to change this. Thus, calculation of hilum-to-duodenum transit time and duodenal appearance time on cholescintigraphy have proven useful in these patients. In conclusion, ambient methods can diagnose functional biliary syndromes. However, there are still a number of issues where further knowledge is needed. Probably the next step forward will be in the area of sensory testing and impedance planimetric methods. (+info)
(4/29) Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: managing the patient with chronic biliary pain.
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a syndrome of chronic biliary pain or recurrent pancreatitis due to functional obstruction of pancreaticobiliary flow at the level of the sphincter of Oddi. The Milwaukee classification stratifies patients according to their clinical picture based on elevated liver enzymes, dilated common bile duct and presence of abdominal pain. Type I patients have pain as well as abnormal liver enzymes and a dilated common bile duct. Type II SOD consists of pain and only one objective finding, and Type III consists of biliary pain only. This classification is useful to guide diagnosis and management of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. The current gold standard for diagnosis is manometry to detect elevated sphincter pressure, which correlates with outcome to sphincterotomy. However, manometry is not widely available and is an invasive procedure with a risk of pancreatitis. Non-invasive testing methods, including fatty meal ultrasonography and scintigraphy, have shown limited correlation with manometric findings but may be useful in predicting outcome to sphincterotomy. Endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin appears to predict subsequent outcome to sphincterotomy, and could be useful in selection of patients for therapy, especially in the setting where manometry is unavailable. (+info)
(5/29) Prospective comparison of secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with manometry in the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction types II and III.
BACKGROUND: In sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) predicts the response to sphincterotomy, but is invasive and associated with complications. AIM: To evaluate the role of secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (ss-MRCP) in predicting the results of SOM in patients with suspected type II or III SOD. METHODS: MRCP was performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 5 and 7 min after intravenous secretin. SOD was diagnosed when the mean basal sphincter pressure at SOM was >40 mm Hg. Long-term outcome after SOM, with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy, was assessed using an 11-point (0-10) Likert scale. RESULTS: Of 47 patients (male/female 9/38; mean age 46 years; range 27-69 years) referred for SOM, 27 (57%) had SOD and underwent biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy. ss-MRCP was abnormal in 10/16 (63%) type II and 0/11 type III SOD cases. The diagnostic accuracy of ss-MRCP for SOD types II and III was 73% and 46%, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 31.6 (range 17-44) months, patients with normal SOM and SOD type II experienced a significant reduction in symptoms (mean Likert score 8 vs 4; p = 0.03, and 9 vs 1.6; p = 0.0002, respectively), whereas in patients with SOD type III, there was no improvement in pain scores. All patients with SOD and an abnormal ss-MRCP (n = 12) reported long-term symptom improvement (mean Likert score 9.2 v 1.2, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ss-MRCP is insensitive in predicting abnormal manometry in patients with suspected type III SOD, but is useful in selecting patients with suspected SOD II who are most likely to benefit from endotherapy. (+info)
(6/29) Characterization of functional biliary pain and dyspeptic symptoms in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: effect of papillotomy.
AIM: To characterize functional biliary pain and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in postcholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) patients with and without sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) proved by endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry (ESOM), and to assess the post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) outcome. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 85 cholecystectomized patients referred for ERCP because of PCS and suspected SOD. On admission, all patients completed our questionnaire. Physical examination, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasound, quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy (QHBS), and ERCP were performed in all patients. Based on clinical and ERCP findings 15 patients had unexpected bile duct stone disease and 15 patients had SOD biliary type I. ESOM demonstrated an elevated basal pressure in 25 patients with SOD biliary-type III. In the remaining 30 cholecystectomized patients without SOD, the liver function tests, ERCP, QHBS and ESOM were all normal. As a control group, 30 'asymptomatic' cholecystectomized volunteers (attended to our hospital for general cardiovascular screening) completed our questionnaire, which is consisted of 50 separate questions on GI symptoms and abdominal pain characteristics. Severity of the abdominal pain (frequency and intensity) was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS). In 40 of 80 patients having definite SOD (i.e. patients with SOD biliary type I and those with elevated SO basal pressure on ESOM), an EST was performed just after ERCP. In these patients repeated questionnaires were filled at each follow-up visit (at 3 and 6 mo) and a second look QHBS was performed 3 mo after the EST to assess the functional response to EST. RESULTS: The analysis of characteristics of the abdominal pain demonstrated that patients with common bile duct stone and definite SOD had a significantly higher score of symptomatic agreement with previously determined biliary-like pain features than patient groups of PCS without SOD and controls. In contrary, no significant differences were found when the pain severity scores were compared in different groups of PCS patients. In patients with definite SOD, EST induced a significant acceleration of the transpapillary bile flow; and based on the comparison of VASs obtained from the pre- and post-EST questionnaires, the severity scores of abdominal pain were significantly improved, however, only 15 of 35 (43%) patients became completely pain free. Post-EST severity of abdominal pain by VASs was significantly higher in patients with predominant dyspepsia at initial presentation as compared to those without dyspeptic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Persistent GI symptoms and general patient dissatisfaction is a rather common finding after EST in patients with SOD, and correlated with the presence of predominant dyspeptic symptoms at the initial presentation, but does not depend on the technical and functional success of EST. (+info)
(7/29) ERCP in acute pancreatitis.
BACKGROUND: The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES: An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in specific situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, specific types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a definite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-fluid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneficially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care. (+info)
(8/29) Relationship between intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum and biliary disease in 178 patients undergoing ERCP.
BACKGROUND: The presence of intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum is often observed during upper digestive tract barium meal studies and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A few papers in China and overseas reported that the diverticulum had something to do with the incidence of cholelithiasis. This study was undertaken to further test this notion and ascertain the relationship between intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum and biliary disease, especially the formation of bile duct pigment stones. METHODS: A total of 178 patients who had undergone ERCP or endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) were studied retrospectively. They were divided into 6 groups according to the category of biliary disease, and the incidence rates of intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum were calculated. RESULTS: There were 44 patients with intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum in 81 patients with primary bile duct pigment stones (54.32%), 4 in 8 patients with bile duct stones and gallbladder stones (50%), 7 in 33 patients with bile duct stones secondary to gallbladder stones (21.21%), 3 in 21 patients with inflammation and stricture of the end of the bile duct and papilla (14.29%), 1 in 22 patients with carcinoma of the end of the bile duct and papilla (4.54%), and 5 in 13 patients with post-cholecystectomy syndrome or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (38.46%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum in patients with primary bile duct pigment stones is higher than that in patients with bile duct stones secondary to gallbladder stones, patients with inflammation and stricture of the end of the bile duct and papilla, and patients with carcinoma of the end of the bile duct and papilla. These findings indicate that the anatomical abnormalities and malfunction of the sphincter of Oddi play an important role in the formation of bile duct pigment stones. (+info)