Mucocele involving the anterior clinoid process: MR and CT findings. (1/20)

We report two patients with surgically proved mucoceles involving the anterior clinoid process. One patient had a mucocele of an Onodi cell and the other had a mucocele isolated to the anterior clinoid process. The MR signal was increased on both T1- and T2-weighted images in the first patient but was isointense on both sequences in the second patient, a finding that resulted in misdiagnosis. The developmental and anatomic features, as well as the diagnostic pitfalls, are discussed.  (+info)

Use of standard radiography to diagnose paranasal sinus disease of asthmatic children in Taiwan: comparison with computed tomography. (2/20)

Paranasal sinus disease and bronchial asthma are frequently associated. Computed tomography imaging is currently the most reliable method for confirming the diagnosis of sinusitis. Due to the cost and amount of radiation during computed tomography, our aim was to analyze whether standard radiography, under computed tomography-control, had a reasonable degree of confidence in the diagnosis of sinusitis. Fifty-three asthmatic patients (42 males and 11 females) with a mean age of 9 years (range 4-14) were enrolled. We evaluated the maxillary sinuses, ethmoidal sinuses, frontal sinuses, and sphenoidal sinuses using standard radiography (Waters' view, Caldwell view, and lateral view) and compared with computed tomography (coronal views), the latter served as a standard. Computed tomography (CT) showed paranasal sinusitis in 58% (31/53) of the asthmatic children. Compared with the results of computed tomography, standard radiography revealed a sensitivity of 81.1% and a specificity of 72.7% for maxillary sinusitis. The sensitivity and specificity for ethmoidal, frontal, and sphenoidal sinusitis were 51.8%, 84.8%; 47.3%, 87.2%; and 40.8%, 93.3%, respectively. In 21 (40%) of the 53 patients, discrepancies were seen between the interpretations of standard radiography c and those of CT scans. In patients with maxillary sinusitis, the correlation between standard radiography and CT was good. However, ethmoidal, frontal, and sphenoidal sinusitis were poorly demonstrated using radiography. Standard radiography can be recommended as a screening method for maxillary sinusitis, but it is not recommended for the diagnosis of other paranasal sinusitis.  (+info)

Imaging of mucormycosis skull base osteomyelitis. (3/20)

Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is typically bacterial in origin and caused by Pseudomonas, although the fungus Aspergillus has also rarely been implicated. SBO generally arises from ear infections and infrequently complicates sinonasal infection. Rhinocerebral Mucor infection is characteristically an acute, fulminant, and deadly infection also affecting the orbits and deep face and is associated with intracranial complications. Bony involvement is uncommon because of the angioinvasive nature of the fungus. More recently, chronic invasive Mucor sinusitis has been described. We report the unusual clinical and imaging features of a patient with biopsy-proven invasive mucormycosis arising from chronic isolated sphenoid sinus disease, who presented with extensive SBO and a paucity of deep facial, orbital, or intracranial involvement.  (+info)

Invasive fungal sinusitis and meningitis due to Arthrographis kalrae in a patient with AIDS. (4/20)

We report the first described case of Arthrographis kalrae pansinusitis and meningitis in a patient with AIDS. The patient was initially diagnosed with Arthrographis kalrae pansinusitis by endoscopic biopsy and culture. The patient was treated with itraconazole for approximately 5 months and then died secondary to Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia. Postmortem examination revealed invasive fungal sinusitis that involved the sphenoid sinus and that extended through the cribiform plate into the inferior surfaces of the bilateral frontal lobes. There was also an associated fungal meningitis and vasculitis with fungal thrombosis and multiple recent infarcts that involved the frontal lobes, right caudate nucleus, and putamen. Post mortem cultures were positive for A. kalrae.  (+info)

Basilar artery vasculitis secondary to sphenoid sinusitis--case report. (5/20)

A 35-year-old male presented with basilar artery vasculitis secondary to sphenoid sinusitis manifesting as rapidly deteriorating symptoms including consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) on admission showed sphenoid sinusitis without intracranial lesion. Emergency angiography demonstrated basilar artery stenosis. The neurological deterioration was considered to be caused by ischemia of the perforating arteries branching from the stenotic portion of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with urokinase infusion through a microcatheter just proximal to the stenosis 3 hours after the onset of the symptoms. His consciousness level and right hemiparesis markedly improved immediately after the procedure. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on day 5 revealed that extension of the sphenoid sinusitis into the prepontine cistern had formed an abscess which was attached to the clivus. The basilar artery was embedded in the abscess at the angiographic stenosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed white blood cell count of 601/mm3 with 82% neutrophils, 89.2 mg/dl protein, and 31 mg/dl glucose. No causative organism in the CSF could be identified by smear or culture. Early MR imaging and CSF examination are recommended when patients present with both ischemic symptoms involving the basilar artery and opacification of the sphenoid sinus on CT to identify basilar artery vasculitis secondary to sphenoid sinusitis.  (+info)

Acute isolated sphenoid sinusitis. (6/20)

INTRODUCTION: Acute isolated sphenoid sinusitis is seen in fewer than 3% of all cases of sinusitis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because of its vague symptoms and the paucity of clinical findings. We report 2 cases of isolated acute isolated sphenoid sinusitis with unusual presentations. CLINICAL PICTURE: Both patients presented with acute headache, eye pain and fever, and were provisionally diagnosed as meningitis. In 1 case, the symptoms were on the contralateral side of the sphenoid infection. Intracranial complications were also present. TREATMENT: Treatment included intravenous antibiotics and endoscopic sphenoidotomy. OUTCOME: Both patients recovered with no residual neurological disability. CONCLUSION: Acute sphenoiditis usually presents with subtle symptoms and elusive physical findings and hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. Complications may arise due to the close proximity of important structures to the sphenoid sinus. Uncomplicated cases can resolve with optimal antibiotic therapy if diagnosed and treated early. Persistence or progression of disease with development of intracranial complications are indications for immediate surgical drainage.  (+info)

An unusual presentation of sphenoid sinusitis with septicaemia in a healthy young adult. (7/20)

Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae account for more than 50% of bacterial acute sinusitis. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is a rare disease with potentially devastating complications such as cranial nerve involvement, brain abscess, and meningitis. It occurs at an incidence of about 2.7% of all sinus infections. There have been no previous reported cases of unilateral sphenoid sinusitis presenting as septicaemia in an otherwise healthy young immunocompetent adult.  (+info)

Headache induced by isolated sphenoid fungal sinusitis: sinus headache? (8/20)