Particulate and microbial contamination in in-use admixed intravenous infusions.
We compared particulate and microbial contamination in residual solutions of peripheral intravenous admixtures after the termination of drip infusion between intravenous fluids admixed with glass ampoule drugs and those admixed with pre-filled syringe drugs. The mean number of particles>or=1.3 microm in diameter per 1 ml of residual solution was 758.4 for fluids (n=60) admixed with potassium chloride in a glass ampoule (20 ml volume), 158.6 for fluids (n=63) admixed with potassium chloride in a pre-filled syringe (20 ml volume), 736.5 for fluids (n=66) admixed with sodium chloride in a glass ampoule (20 ml volume), 179.2 for fluids (n=15) admixed with sodium chloride in a pre-filled syringe (20 ml volume), 1884.5 in fluids (n=30) admixed with dobutamine hydrochloride in 3 glass ampoules (5 ml volume), and 178.9 (n=10) in diluted dobutamine hydrochloride in pre-filled syringes (50 ml volume: For these samples alone, particulate and microbial contamination were evaluated in sealed products.) Thus, for potassium chloride or sodium chloride for injection, the number of particles>or=1.3 microm in diameter in the residual intravenous solution was significantly higher for fluids admixed with glass ampoule drugs than for those admixed with pre-filled syringe drugs (p<0.0001). For dobutamine hydrochloride for injection, the number of particles>or=1.3 microm in diameter in the residual intravenous solution was estimated to be higher for fluids admixed with its glass ampoule drug than for those admixed with its pre-filled syringe drug. Observation of the residual solutions of fluids admixed with potassium chloride, sodium chloride, or dobutamine hydrochloride in glass ampoules using an electron microscope with an X-ray analyzer showed glass fragments in each residual solution. Therefore, for the prevention of glass particle contamination in peripheral intravenous admixtures, the use of pre-filled syringe drugs may a useful method. No microbial contamination was observed in any of the residual solutions of 5 types of admixture. (+info)
Comparative chemical study of MTA and Portland cements.
Portland cement has been analyzed and compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) because of their chemical similarity. The possibility of using this material as a less expensive alternative to MTA in dental practice should be considered. In view of this, the present study compared the components of a Portland cement (Votoran) to two commercial brands of MTA (Pro-Root and MTA-Angelus). Twelve specimens of each material were fabricated and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to obtain their percentage of chemical elements. The means of the chemical elements found in each material was compared by descriptive statistics. Bismuth was present only in MTA cements to provide radiopacity. In conclusion, the tested cements have similar components, which supports, as far as composition is concerned, the possible clinical use of Portland as an option to MTA. (+info)
Butyl isocyanide as a probe of the activation mechanism of soluble guanylate cyclase. Investigating the role of non-heme nitric oxide.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologically relevant activator of the hemoprotein soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the presence of NO, sGC is activated several hundredfold above the basal level by a mechanism that remains to be elucidated. The heme ligand n-butyl isocyanide (BIC) was used to probe the mechanism of NO activation of sGC. Electronic absorption spectroscopy was used to show that BIC binds to the sGC heme, forming a 6-coordinate complex with an absorbance maximum at 429 nm. BIC activates sGC 2-5-fold, and synergizes with the allosteric activator YC-1, to activate the enzyme 15-25-fold. YC-1 activates the sGC-BIC complex, and leads to an increase in both the V(max) and K(m). BIC was also used to probe the mechanism of NO activation. The activity of the sGC-BIC complex increases 15-fold in the presence of NO, without displacing BIC at the heme, which is consistent with previous reports that proposed the involvement of a non-heme NO binding site in the activation process. (+info)
Ultrastructural evidence of dermal gadolinium deposits in a patient with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and end-stage renal disease.