Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk.
The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities. (+info)
Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl.
O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid. (+info)
Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 are distinct in oligomerization in the presence of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF-2 are prototypic members of the FGF family, which to date comprises at least 18 members. Surprisingly, even though FGF-1 and FGF-2 share more than 80% sequence similarity and an identical structural fold, these two growth factors are biologically very different. FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in their ability to bind isoforms of the FGF receptor family as well as the heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) component of proteoglycans on the cell surface to initiate signaling in different cell types. Herein, we provide evidence for one mechanism by which these two proteins could differ biologically. Previously, it has been noted that FGF-1 and FGF-2 can oligomerize in the presence of HLGAGs. Therefore, we investigated whether FGF-1 and FGF-2 oligomerize by the same mechanism or by a different one. Through a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking, we show here that, under identical conditions, FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in the degree and kind of oligomerization. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of FGF-1 and FGF-2 uncomplexed and HLGAG complexed crystal structures enables us to readily explain why FGF-2 forms sequential oligomers whereas FGF-1 forms only dimers. FGF-2, which possesses an interface capable of protein association, forms a translationally related oligomer, whereas FGF-1, which does not have this interface, forms only a symmetrically related dimer. Taken together, these data show that FGF-1 and FGF-2, despite their sequence homology, differ in their mechanism of oligomerization. (+info)
Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning.
Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid. (+info)
Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis.
CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity. (+info)
Do charge-remote fragmentations occur under matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization post-source decompositions and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization collisionally activated decompositions?
The precursor ions of tetraphenylporphyrins that are substituted with fatty acids can be introduced into the gas phase by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and undergo post-source and collisionally activated decompositions (CAD) in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The goal of the research is to obtain a better understanding of post-source decompositions (PSD); specifically, we asked the question of whether ions undergoing PSD have sufficient energy to give charge-remote fragmentations along an alkyl chain. We chose the porphyrin macrocycle because we expected it to act as an inert "support," allowing the molecule to be desorbed by MALDI and to be amenable to charge-remote fragmentation. MALDI-PSD and MALDI-CAD spectra are similar to high-energy CAD spectra and considerably more informative than low-energy CAD spectra, showing that charge-remote fragmentations of the fatty acid moieties do occur upon MALDI-PSD and MALDI-CAD. (+info)
Identification of a new uracil-DNA glycosylase family by expression cloning using synthetic inhibitors.
BACKGROUND: The cellular environment exposes DNA to a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous reactive species that can damage DNA, thereby leading to genetic mutations. DNA glycosylases protect the integrity of the genome by catalyzing the first step in the base excision-repair of lesions in DNA. RESULTS: Here, we report a strategy to conduct genome-wide screening for expressed DNA glycosylases, based on their ability to bind to a library of four synthetic inhibitors that target the enzyme's active site. These inhibitors, used in conjunction with the in vitro expression cloning procedure, led to the identification of novel Xenopus and human proteins, xSMUG1 and hSMUG1, respectively, that efficiently excise uracil residues from DNA. Despite a lack of statistically significant overall sequence similarity to the two established classes of uracil-DNA glycosylases, the SMUG1 enzymes contain motifs that are hallmarks of a shared active-site structure and overall protein architecture. The unusual preference of SMUG1 for single-stranded rather than double-stranded DNA suggests a unique biological function in ridding the genome of uracil residues, which are potent endogenous mutagens. CONCLUSIONS: The 'proteomics' approach described here has led to the isolation of a new family of uracil-DNA glycosylases. The three classes of uracil-excising enzymes (SMUG1 being the most recently discovered) represent a striking example of structural and functional conservation in the almost complete absence of sequence conservation. (+info)
Cloning, expression, and characterization of the Fab fragment of the anti-lysozyme antibody HyHEL-5.
Hybridoma cDNAs encoding the individual chains of the Fab fragment of the well characterized murine monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5 were cloned and sequenced. The recombinant Fab fragment was produced by expressing each chain in a separate Escherichia coli pET vector, denaturing inclusion bodies and co-refolding. Characterization of the purified Fab by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing demonstrated proper processing of the individual chains. The association of the recombinant Fab fragment with hen egg lysozyme and the avian epitope variant bobwhite quail lysozyme was found by isothermal titration calorimetry to have energetics very similar to that of the HyHEL-5 IgG. Heterologous expression of the HyHEL-5 Fab fragment opens the way to structure/function studies in this well-known system. (+info)