IgG antibody responses in early experimental sparganosis and IgG subclass responses in human sparganosis.
Antigenic components in the crude extracts of Spirometra mansoni plerocercoid were analyzed in early experimental infections and in IgG subclass observed in clinical sparganosis. By IgG immunoblot, sera obtained serially from experimental mice, fed 5 spargana each, were reacted with the crude extracts. Protein bands at 36-26 kDa and 103 kDa showed positive reactions since two weeks after infection. In a differential immunoblot, in which a monospecific antibody against sparganum chymase at 36 kDa was pre-treated, the reactions at 36-26 kDa disappeared, indicating that the sparganum chymase and its degradation products invoked IgG antibody reactions. When 69 patients sera of human sparganosis were examined for their IgG subclass responses, IgG4 levels showed the highest reaction which was followed by IgG1. The IgG4 antibody also reacted mainly with 36-31 kDa protease. These results indicate that 36 kDa chymase of S. mansoni plerocercoid is the main antigenic component inducing IgG antibody response in early stage of experimental sparganosis and for specific IgG subclass reactions in human sparganosis. (+info)
Epidemiological significance of sero-positive inhabitants against sparganum in Kangwon-do, Korea.
Sparganum is a plerocercoid of pseudophyllidean tapeworms, Diphyllobothrium or Spirometra spp. Human sparganosis is endemic mainly in East and Southeast Asian countries where the custom of eating raw snake or frog meat, or poulticing with snake's skin exists. From January 1995 to November 1999, an epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the serum levels of anti-sparganum specific IgG antibodies in Whachon-gun residents, Korea. An enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis of the sera from 316 subjects were used. In addition, a stool examination from 416 inhabitants and questionnaires regarding the consumption of raw meat were given. Out of 416 inhabitants examined coprologically, one was infected with Clonorchis sinensis and two were infected with Metagonimus spp. The sera from 36 inhabitants (11.4 %) showed a positive reaction to the sparganum antigen. Out of these 36 inhabitants, the sera from 25 people were examined 7, 19, and 50 months later. The sera were found to still show positive reactions without any remarkable changes of anti-sparganum specific antibody titers except for one. An analysis of the questionnaires suggested that a history of eating of raw snakes or frogs was important risk factor for clinical or covert sparganosis (odd ratio=15.6 and 3.1, respectively). (+info)
A case of breast sparganosis.
A 29-year-old Korean woman visited the Department of Surgery in MizMedi Hospital with a palpable itching mass on the right breast that had existed for the past 7 months. She had no history to eat either frogs or snakes, but had the history of drinking impure water. Sonography revealed a serpiginous hypoechoic tubular structure associated with partial fat necrosis in breast parenchymal layer and subcutaneous fat layer. It also revealed oval cystic lesions. At operation, an ivory white opaque ribbon-like worm that measured 16.5 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width was extracted. Anti-sparganum specific serum IgG level in the patient's serum (absorbance = 0.71), measured by ELISA, was found to be significantly higher than those of normal controls (cut off point = 0.21). Sonography and ELISA appear to be helpful to diagnose sparganosis. Breast sparganosis is rarely found throughout the world. (+info)
Comparison of carbohydrate moieties of sparganum proteins of the snake, mouse and those of adult worm.
The carbohydrate moieties of larval sparganum proteins in two different species, the snakes, Elaphe rufodorsata, the Balb/c mouse and those of the adult worm, Spirometra erinacei, were compared using five different lectins including GNA, SNA, MAA, PNA and DSA. The GNA positive 53 kDa molecule, which is excretory-secretory protease in the sparganum from the snake showed a stage specific and developmental regulation. We also suggested that sparganum glycosylation may be involved in immune evasion and differentiation into an adult worm. (+info)
Isolation and partial characterization of cysteine proteinase from sparganum.
A proteolytic enzyme was purified from the tissue extract of spargana (plerocercoids of Spirometra erinacei) by DEAE-Trisacryl M ion exchange chromatography and thiopropyl-sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in a 21-fold purification. The proteinase activity was assayed with a synthetic fluorescent substrate, carbobenzoxy-phenylalanyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified materials revealed a single 28,000 dalton band. Inhibitor profiles of the band indicated that it belonged to cysteine endopeptidases. It exhibited identical pH curves with optimum at pH 5.5, and 50% activity from pH 4.7 to 8. It could completely degrade collagen chains to three identical products. It also showed some activity on hemoglobin. Furthermore, the band on immunoblots was reactive to the sera of sparganosis patients. These results suggest that the proteolytic enzyme belongs to cysteine proteinase which plays a role in the tissue penetration. Also it may be used as the antigen for diagnosis of active sparganosis. (+info)
Component proteins and protease activities in excretory-secretory product of sparganum.
Spirometra mansoni plerocercoid (sparganum) was incubated in saline at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C up to 100 hours. Protein contents in the excretory-secretory product (ESP) were rather constant (mean 7.7 mg of protein/gram of sparganum) in the preparations. Reducing SDS-PAGE of ESP showed similar protein subunit compositions with those in crude extract. Antigenic 36 and 31 kDa proteins were major bands in ESP. ESP exhibited specific activities of protease (2.9-5.3 units/mg) at pH 6.0 and pH 7.5. Presence of protease activity in ESP may be a supporting evidence that hitherto known cysteine protease of sparganum is possibly secreted. (+info)
Stage-specific expression genes of the Spirometra erinaceieuropaei plerocercoid screened by mRNA differential display technique.
BACKGROUND: The stage-specific expression of genes is one of the most characteristics of parasites. It has been found that a lot of genes of Spriometra erinaceieuropaei are specifically expressed in pleroceroid in large amount, but not expressed when the plerocercoid development into adult worm. The study is to screen other stage-specific ecpression genes of plerocercoid of Spirtmetra erinceieuropaei. METHODS: RNA was separately extracted by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform from plerocercoids and adult worms of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, DNA contaminated in the RNA was digested by RNase-free DNase. After the RNA was reverse transcripted to cDNA using T12MA, T12MC, T12MG and T12MT anchor-primers, PCR was done using the same T12MN and one random primer with alpha 35S-dATP in the system. The PCR products were fractionated on an 8% denatured polyacrylamide gel. Differential bands of the plerocercoid found in the gel were cut out, amplified by PCR and sequenced. Northern hybridization was used to identify the stage-specific expression genes. RESULTS: Eleven differential bands were selected from the gel and classified into 3 kinds of gene fragments by hybridization, after they were amplified by PCR. Fragments 1 (238 bp) and 2 (383 bp), were confirmed by Northern hybridization, as being expressed in the plerocercoid. However, fragment 3 (433 bp), was expressed in both the plerocercoid and the adult worm. Data from the 3 gene fragments underwent homological analysis in GenBank. The sequence which was homologous with fragments 1 and 2 was not found, but fragment 3 had high homology with many kinds of 28S rRNA. CONCLUSIONS: The gene expressions of plerocercoids are different from adult worms because they live in different hosts. Two types of different gene fragments from the plerocercoid were found by mRNA differential display technique. (+info)
Enzymatic N-glycan analysis of 31 kDa molecule in plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni (sparganum) and its antigenicity after chemical oxidation.
A highly specific antigenic protein of 31 kDa from plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni (sparganum) was obtained by gelatin affinity and Mono Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The purified 31 kDa protein was subjected to N-glycan enzymatic digestion for structural analysis. The relative electrophoretic mobility was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, before and after digestion. On SDS-PAGE after enzymatic digestion, the 31 kDa protein showed a molecular shift of approximately 2 kDa, which indicated the possession of complex N-linked oligosaccharides (N-glycosidase F sensitive) but not of high-mannose oligosaccharides (endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, non-sensitive). Chemically periodated 31 kDa protein showed statistically non-significant changes with human sparganosis sera by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, the dominant epitopes of the 31 kDa molecule in human sparganosis were found to be mainly polypeptide, while N-glycans of the antigenic molecule in sparganum was minimal in anti-carbohydrate antibody production. (+info)