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(1/297) Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States.

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

(2/297) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

(3/297) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis.

A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans.  (+info)

(4/297) The prevalence and health burden of self-reported diabetes in older Mexican Americans: findings from the Hispanic established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly.

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and health burden of self-reported adult-onset diabetes mellitus were examined in older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly were used to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and its association with other chronic conditions, disability, sensory impairments, health behaviors, and health service use in 3050 community-dwelling Mexican Americans 65 years and older. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in this sample was 22%, and there were high rates of obesity, diabetes-related complications, and diabetic medication use. Myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, angina, and cancer were significantly more common in diabetics than in nondiabetics, as were high levels of depressive symptoms, low perceived health status, disability, incontinence, vision impairment, and health service use. Many of the rate differences found in this sample of older Mexican Americans were higher than those reported among other groups of older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the prevalence and health burden of diabetes are greater in older Mexican Americans than in older non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans, particularly among elderly men.  (+info)

(5/297) Evaluation of malaria surveillance using retrospective, laboratory-based active case detection in four southwestern states, 1995.

The global resurgence of malaria has raised concerns of the possible reintroduction of indigenous transmission in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Malaria Surveillance System, using data supplied by state and local health departments (SLHDs), is maintained to detect local malaria transmission and monitor trends in imported cases. To determine the completeness of reporting of malaria cases to SLHDs, cases identified by local surveillance systems were compared with those identified through active case detection conducted at all laboratories that receive clinical specimens from 11 metropolitan areas in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Of the 61 malaria cases identified through either local surveillance or active case detection, 43 (70%) were identified by SLHDs (range by metropolitan area = 50-100%) and 56 (92%) through active case detection. High percentages of cases were identified by SLHDs in New Mexico (80%) and San Diego County (88%), where laboratories are required to send positive blood smears to the SLHD laboratory for confirmation. Completeness of reporting, calculated using the Lincoln-Peterson Capture-Recapture technique, was 69% for SLHD surveillance systems and 89% for laboratory-based active case detection. The high percentage of cases identified by the 11 SLHDs suggests that the National Malaria Surveillance System provides trends that accurately reflect the epidemiology of malaria in the United States. Case identification may be improved by promoting confirmatory testing in SLHD laboratories and incorporating laboratory-based reporting into local surveillance systems.  (+info)

(6/297) The effectiveness of an abuse assessment protocol in public health prenatal clinics.

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated whether incorporation of an abuse assessment protocol into the routine procedures of the prenatal clinics of a large urban public health department led to increased referral for and assessment, identification, and documentation of abuse. METHODS: Evaluation was conducted at 3 matched prenatal clinics serving a total of 12,000 maternity patients per year. Two clinics used the abuse protocol and 1 did not. An audit was performed at the clinics on a randomly selected sample of 540 maternity patient charts for the 15 months before the protocol was initiated and of 540 records for the 15 months after the protocol was introduced. Ninety-six percent of the patients represented in the sample were Latina. RESULTS: At the clinics using the protocol, abuse assessment increased from 0 to 88%. Detection of abuse increased from 0.8% to 7%. There were no changes at the comparison clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporation of an abuse assessment protocol into the routine procedures of public health department prenatal clinics increases the assessment, identification, and documentation of and referral for abuse among pregnant women. An abuse protocol should be a routine part of maternity care.  (+info)

(7/297) Establishing a captive broodstock for the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans).

It is crucial for endangered species to retain as much genetic variation as possible to enhance recovery. Bonytail chub (Gila elegans) is one the most imperiled freshwater fish species, persisting as a declining population of large and old individuals primarily in Lake Mohave on the lower Colorado River. Establishment of a new captive broodstock from the 1981 F1 progeny of at most 10 wild fish plus any newly captured wild fish is evaluated and reviewed. The effective number of founders contributing to the 1981 F1 progeny appears quite small, varying from approximately 3.5, based on F1 allozyme data and supported by mtDNA data, to approximately 8.5, based on the original production records. Using a sample of these progeny to initiate a new broodstock further reduces the effective number of founders. With even the most optimistic evaluation of the amount of genetic variation in F1 progeny, it is obvious that including wild fish in the broodstock is essential to increase the amount of genetic variation. The approach given here could be applied to retain genetic variation in other endangered species in a captive broodstock until they have stable natural populations of adequate size.  (+info)

(8/297) Segregation analysis of diabetic nephropathy in Pima Indians.

Familial aggregation of diabetic nephropathy suggests the existence of genes determining susceptibility to nephropathy in addition to those leading to diabetes. In the present study, complex segregation analysis was performed in diabetic members of Pima Indian families to determine whether familial aggregation of nephropathy in this population could reflect the action of a single major gene. Nephropathy, defined by a urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) > or = 500 mg/g, was analyzed as a discrete trait in a class C regressive logistic model. Individuals with PCR <500 mg/g were considered unaffected. Segregation analysis was performed both for nephropathy at the last examination (prevalent cases) and for duration of diabetes at the onset of nephropathy (incident cases). The REGD program was used for the analysis of the prevalent cases and the REGTL program for the incident cases, both from the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology package (Case Western University, Cleveland, OH). The analysis of prevalent cases included 2,107 Pima Indians from 715 nuclear families. A subset of 504 of these families containing 1,403 individuals was used in the analysis of incident cases. Analysis of prevalent cases supported the existence of a gene with a major role, in that hypotheses of no major effect and of no transmission of a major effect were rejected (P = 0.00001; P = 0.003), whereas Mendelian transmission was not rejected (P = 0.85). A dominant model provided the best fit, but a recessive model could not be rejected. The analysis of incident cases, however, did not support a major gene effect on duration of diabetes at the onset of nephropathy, and analyses of lifetime occurrence of nephropathy were inconclusive. The analysis of prevalent cases supports the hypothesis of a major genetic effect on susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Pima Indians, but the analysis of incident cases does not support a genetic effect on duration of diabetes at the onset of nephropathy. The discrepancy may reflect the difficulty in precisely dating onset of nephropathy. The parameters of the model derived from segregation analysis of prevalent cases may be useful in linkage studies to detect nephropathy susceptibility loci.  (+info)