Production of an allelopathic polyacetylene in hairy root cultures of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.).
Hairy roots of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.) were induced by infecting axenic plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Growth and allelopathic polyacetylene (cis-dehydromatricaria ester, cis-DME) production of two independent hairy root clones were examined in several culture media and light regimes. cis-DME contents in hairy roots were at the same level as those in normal roots. cis-DME production in root cultures was several-fold lower than that of native plants and greatly repressed by light. (+info
Control of cytochrome b6f at low and high light intensity and cyclic electron transport in leaves.
The light-dependent control of photosynthetic electron transport from plastoquinol (PQH(2)) through the cytochrome b(6)f complex (Cyt b(6)f) to plastocyanin (PC) and P700 (the donor pigment of Photosystem I, PSI) was investigated in laboratory-grown Helianthus annuus L., Nicotiana tabaccum L., and naturally-grown Solidago virgaurea L., Betula pendula Roth, and Tilia cordata P. Mill. leaves. Steady-state illumination was interrupted (light-dark transient) or a high-intensity 10 ms light pulse was applied to reduce PQ and oxidise PC and P700 (pulse-dark transient) and the following re-reduction of P700(+) and PC(+) was recorded as leaf transmission measured differentially at 810-950 nm. The signal was deconvoluted into PC(+) and P700(+) components by oxidative (far-red) titration (V. Oja et al., Photosynth. Res. 78 (2003) 1-15) and the PSI density was determined by reductive titration using single-turnover flashes (V. Oja et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1658 (2004) 225-234). These innovations allowed the definition of the full light response curves of electron transport rate through Cyt b(6)f to the PSI donors. A significant down-regulation of Cyt b(6)f maximum turnover rate was discovered at low light intensities, which relaxed at medium light intensities, and strengthened again at saturating irradiances. We explain the low-light regulation of Cyt b(6)f in terms of inactivation of carbon reduction cycle enzymes which increases flux resistance. Cyclic electron transport around PSI was measured as the difference between PSI electron transport (determined from the light-dark transient) and PSII electron transport determined from chlorophyll fluorescence. Cyclic e(-) transport was not detected at limiting light intensities. At saturating light the cyclic electron transport was present in some, but not all, leaves. We explain variations in the magnitude of cyclic electron flow around PSI as resulting from the variable rate of non-photosynthetic ATP-consuming processes in the chloroplast, not as a principle process that corrects imbalances in ATP/NADPH stoichiometry during photosynthesis. (+info
Plant senescence cues entry into diapause in the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis: resulting metabolic depression is critical for water conservation.
Mechanisms and possible cues for seasonal increases in desiccation resistance in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis, were examined before and after natural and premature plant senescence, or after being removed from their gall and placed in either 100, 95 or 75% relative humidity (RH). Rates of water loss were 8.6-fold lower, averaging 0.7+/-0.2 microg mm(-2) h(-1), in larvae from senescent gall tissue and after all RH treatments than in control larvae from pre-senescent plants. Enhanced desiccation resistance occurred quickly, within 3 days of removal from their gall. Contrary to most previous reports, a large majority of the increased desiccation resistance (approximately 85%) was due to reduced respiratory transpiration with the remainder being the result of a lowered cuticular permeability. Rates of cuticular water loss were reduced by the presence of a vapor pressure gradient between the larval hemolymph and environmental water vapor and were probably due to increases in cuticular lipids and/or production of the cryoprotectant glycerol. Metabolic rate was reduced by over fourfold, averaging 0.07+/-0.01 microl CO2 g(-1) h(-1), in larvae from senescent gall tissue and all RH treatments compared to larvae from pre-senescent plants. The magnitude of the reduction in metabolic rates indicated that these larvae had entered diapause. In addition, larvae entered diapause in response to removal from, or degeneration of, the gall tissue they feed, on rather than seasonal changes in temperature or photoperiod. The low metabolic rates of the diapausing larvae probably allowed them to dramatically reduce their respiratory transpiration and total rate of water loss compared with non-diapausing controls. Thus, diapause, with its associated lowered metabolic rate, may be essential for conserving water in overwintering temperate insects, which may be dormant for six or more months of the year. (+info
Cascading host-associated genetic differentiation in parasitoids of phytophagous insects.
The extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects may be attributable to their narrow specialization as parasites of plants, with selective tradeoffs associated with alternate host plants driving genetic divergence of host-associated forms via ecological speciation. Most phytophagous insects in turn are attacked by parasitoid insects, which are similarly specialized and may also undergo host-associated differentiation (HAD). A particularly interesting possibility is that HAD by phytophagous insects might lead to HAD in parasitoids, as parasitoids evolve divergent lineages on the new host plant-specific lineages of their phytophagous hosts. We call this process 'cascading host-associated differentiation' (cascading HAD). We tested for cascading HAD in parasitoids of two phytophagous insects, each of which consists of genetically distinct host-associated lineages on the same pair of goldenrods (Solidago). Each parasitoid exhibited significant host-associated genetic divergence, and the distribution and patterns of divergence are consistent with divergence in sympatry. Although evidence for cascading HAD is currently limited, our results suggest that it could play an important role in the diversification of parasitoids attacking phytophagous insects. The existence of cryptic host-associated lineages also suggests that the diversity of parasitoids may be vastly underestimated. (+info
Plant genotypic diversity predicts community structure and governs an ecosystem process.
Theory predicts, and recent empirical studies have shown, that the diversity of plant species determines the diversity of associated herbivores and mediates ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). However, an often-overlooked component of plant diversity, namely population genotypic diversity, may also have wide-ranging effects on community structure and ecosystem processes. We showed experimentally that increasing population genotypic diversity in a dominant old-field plant species, Solidago altissima, determined arthropod diversity and community structure and increased ANPP. The effects of genotypic diversity on arthropod diversity and ANPP were comparable to the effects of plant species diversity measured in other studies. (+info
New flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Solidago altissima.
Two new flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with six known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Solidago altissima L. grown in Kochi of Japan. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed by acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. (+info
A new labdane diterpene from the flowers of Solidago canadensis.
A new labdane diterpene, 9alpha,16xi-dihydroxy-6-oxo-7,13-labdadien-15,16-olide (solicanolide, 1) and six known compounds identified as quercetin (2), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3, neochlorogenic acid), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, chlorogenic acid), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6) and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7) were isolated from the flowers of Solidago canadensis. To our knowledge, compound 7 was isolated for the first time in S. canadensis. This work describes the isolation of compounds 1-7 and the structure elucidation of a new compound identified as compound 1. Solicanolide (1) showed cytotoxic activity against A549 (IC(50): 13+/-2 microM), DLD-1 (IC(50): 26+/-2 microM) and WS1 (IC(50): 17+/-1 microM) cell lines. (+info
Effects of predator hunting mode on grassland ecosystem function.