Volatile organic compounds released by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.
The composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) released by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycete: Deuteromycotina) utilizing two different carbon sources was investigated. Analyses were performed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to capillary gas chromatography (CGC) and CGC-mass spectrometry (MS). Major components in glucose-grown cultures were diisopropyl naphthalenes, ethanol, and sesquiterpenes. Alkane-grown fungal VOC switched to a fingerprint with prevalence of n-decane. This is the first report on the volatiles released by entomopathogenic fungi. (+info)
Analytical microextraction: current status and future trends.
Analytical microextractions, defined as nonexhaustive sample preparation with a very small volume of extracting phase (microliter range or smaller) relative to the sample volume, represent an important development in the field of analytical chemistry. Analytes are extracted by a small volume of a solid or semi-solid polymeric material, as in solid-phase microextraction (SPME), or alternatively by a small volume of a liquid, as in liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). This paper gives an overview of the SPME and LPME techniques and discusses future trends. This includes a discussion of the different extraction formats available, commercial equipment, method transfer from traditional sample preparation methods to microextraction, and performance as well as robustness for the latter type of systems. In addition, the paper contains a unified approach to the understanding of extraction thermodynamics and kinetics applicable to both SPME and LPME. (+info)
Progress of solid-phase microextraction coatings and coating techniques.
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been popular as an environmentally friendly sample pretreatment technique to extract a very wide range of analytes. This is partly owing to the development of SPME coatings. One of the key factors affecting the extraction performances, such as the sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility, is the properties of the coatings on SPME fibers. This paper classifies the materials used as SPME coatings and introduces some common preparation techniques of SPME coating in detail, such as sol-gel technique, electrochemical polymerization technique, particle direct pasting technique, restricted access matrix SPME technique, and molecularly imprinted SPME technique. (+info)
Optimization of the SPME parameters and its online coupling with HPLC for the analysis of tricyclic antidepressants in plasma samples.
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-liquid chromatography (LC) is used to analyze tricyclic antidepressant drugs desipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline, amitriptyline, and clomipramine (internal standard) in plasma samples. Extraction conditions are optimized using a 2(3) factorial design plus a central point to evaluate the influence of the time, temperature, and matrix pH. A Polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (60-mum film thickness) fiber is selected after the assessment of different types of coating. The chromatographic separation is realized using a C(18) column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5-microm particles), ammonium acetate buffer (0.05 mol/L, pH 5.50)-acetonitrile (55:45 v/v) with 0.1% of triethylamine as mobile phase and UV-vis detection at 214 nm. Among the factorial design conditions evaluated, the best results are obtained at a pH 11.0, temperature of 30 degrees C, and extraction time of 45 min. The proposed method, using a lab-made SPME-LC interface, allowed the determination of tricyclic antidepressants in in plasma at therapeutic concentration levels. (+info)
HS-SPME determination of volatile carbonyl and carboxylic compounds in different matrices.
Specific chromatographic methodologies are developed for the analysis of carboxylic acids (C(2)-C(6), benzoic) and aldehydes (C(2)-C(10)) of low molecular weight in diverse matrices, such as air, automotive exhaust gases, human breath, and aqueous matrices. For carboxylic acids, the method is based on their reaction with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in aqueous solution, followed by the separation and identification of the resultant pentafluorobenzyl esters by means of headspace (HS)-solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) and electron capture detection (ECD). Detection limits in the microg/m(3) range are reached, with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 10% and linear response (R(2) > 0.99) over two orders of magnitude. The analytical methodology for aldehydes is based on SPME with simultaneous derivatization of the analytes on the fiber, by reaction with pentafluorophenylhydrazine. The derivatization reagent is previously deposited on the SPME fiber, which is then exposed to the gaseous matrix or the HS of the sample solution. The pentafluorophenyl hydrazones formed on the fiber are analyzed selectively by means of GC-ECD, with detection limits in the ng/m(3) range, RSD less than 10%, and linear response (R(2) > 0.99) over two orders of magnitude. (+info)
Solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography for determination of beta-carotene in food.
Beta-carotene in vegetables and nutritional products is analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) to improve the speed of analysis and to reduce the consumption of organic solvents. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of this analytical method for beta-carotene determinations in vegetables and nutritional products are approximately 10% and 5%, respectively. The amount of beta-carotene was found to vary from 0.35 +/- 0.05 ppm to 76.5 +/- 6.9 ppm for several vegetables in Taiwan. This method was linear over the range of 0.4-40 ppm with correlation coefficients higher than 0.997. The experimentally determined level of beta-carotene in nutritional products varied from 3.8 +/- 0.2 ppm to 24.6 +/- 1.1 ppm following SPME-LC. The recoveries of beta-carotene for these measurements following SPME were all higher than 97% +/- 2% (n = 3). The detection limits of beta-carotene for this method were from 0.027 to 0.054 ppm. Conventional solvent extractions take approximately 4-6 h for extraction and reconcentration but SPME takes approximately 1 h. From several tens to hundreds of milliliters, organic solvents can be saved using SPME. SPME provides better analyses on beta-carotene than conventional solvent extraction for nutritional products in terms of speed, precision, simplicity, and solvent consumption. (+info)
Determination of microcystins in water using integrated solid-phase microextraction with microbore high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
The development of a technique combining solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with microbore high-performance liquid chromatography (micro-HPLC)-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for determination of dissolved microcystins in water is reported. Several important parameters affecting the efficiency of SPME extraction of microcystins are investigated. A microbore C18 column HPLC coupled with tandem QTOF-MS with information-dependent acquisition (IDA) is developed to effectively analyze microcystins in microliter volumes of SPME extracts. The micro-HPLC-QTOF-MS with IDA technique provides comprehensive information, including a survey chromatogram (total ion chromatogram), full scan mass spectrum, and product ion scan mass spectra at different collision energies for individual analytes, which allows for both identification and quantitation in the same run. Linear calibration curves of microcystin standard [microcystin (MC)-arginine (R)R] 1-100 microg/L and of microcystin standard [MC-leucine (L)R] 1-250 microg/L are obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The combination of SPME with HPLC-QTOF-MS and IDA offers limits of detection of 0.6 pg for MC-RR and 1.6 pg for MC-LR. Analysis of spiked lake-water samples shows a recovery of > 86% for MC-RR and > 70% for MC-LR. This technique requires small sample volumes, minimizes the use of organic solvents, and provides sensitive and information-rich analysis of unknown samples. (+info)
Male sex pheromone release and female mate choice in a butterfly.
In butterflies female mate choice is influenced by both visual and olfactory cues, the latter of which are important at close range. Males of the green-veined butterfly, Pieris napi, are known to release citral (mixture of geranial and neral, 1:1), but its role(s) and conditions of release are not known. Here, we show that male P. napi release citral when interacting with conspecific males, conspecific females, heterospecific males and also when alone. The amount of citral released correlated strongly with male flight activity, which explained more than 70% of the variation. This suggests that males do not exercise control over turning release on or off, but rather that citral is emitted as a passive physical process during flight. Electroantennogram experiments showed that female antennal response was ten times more sensitive to citral than male response. Females expressed acceptance behavior when exposed to models made with freshly excised male wings or those treated with citral following chemical extraction, but not to ones with extracted wings only. Hence, these behavioral and electrophysiological tests provide strong evidence that citral is a signal from the male directed to the female during courtship, and that it functions as a male sex pheromone. (+info)