Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.
Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. (+info)
Begomovirus genetic diversity in the native plant reservoir Solanum nigrum: Evidence for the presence of a new virus species of recombinant nature.
We examined the native plant host Solanum nigrum as reservoir of genetic diversity of begomoviruses that cause the tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) emerging in southern Spain. Presence of isolates of all the species and strains found associated with TYLCD in this area was demonstrated. Mixed infections were common, which is a prerequisite for recombination to occur. In fact, presence of a novel recombinant begomovirus was demonstrated. Analysis of an infectious clone showed that it resulted from a genetic exchange between isolates of the ES strain of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and of the type strain of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus. The novel biological properties suggested that it is a step forward in the ecological adaptation to the invaded area. This recombinant represents an isolate of a new begomovirus species for which the name Tomato yellow leaf curl Axarquia virus is proposed. Spread into commercial tomatoes is shown. (+info)
Systemin in Solanum nigrum. The tomato-homologous polypeptide does not mediate direct defense responses.
We extend Ryan's seminal work on the 18-amino acid polypeptide systemin in tomato's (Solanum lycopersicum) systemic wound response to the closely related solanaceous species Solanum nigrum. We compared wild-type plants to plants transformed with an inverted repeat prosystemin construct (IRSys) to silence the expression of the endogenous S. nigrum prosystemin gene. In wild-type plants elicited with wounding + oral secretions from Manduca sexta larvae, trypsin-proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) accumulated even though prosystemin transcripts were down-regulated. Neither reducing the endogenous systemin levels by RNAi nor complementing the plants with systemin by exogenously supplying the polypeptide through excised stems significantly increased TPI activity, indicating that systemin and TPIs are not correlated in S. nigrum. The performance of two herbivore species from two feeding guilds, M. sexta larvae and Myzus persicae nicotianae, did not differ between wild-type and IRSys plants, demonstrating that varying endogenous systemin levels do not alter the direct defenses of S. nigrum. Field experiments with wild-type and IRSys plants and the flea beetle Epitrix pubescens supported these glasshouse data. That levels of oral secretion-elicited jasmonic acid did not differ between wild-type and IRSys plants suggests that systemin is unlikely to mediate jasmonate signaling in S. nigrum as it does in tomato. We conclude that the tomato-homologous polypeptide does not mediate direct defense responses in S. nigrum. (+info)
Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Solanum nigrum chloroform extract in animal models.
AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests. RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims. (+info)
Salinity stress enhances production of solasodine in Solanum nigrum L.
Various in vitro grown tissues (non-regenerative callus, regenerative callus and microshoot derived leaves) of Solanum nigrum L. were cultured under salinity stress (0-150 mM NaCl) for enhanced production of solasodine, a steroidal alkaloid and an alternative to diosgenin, which is used as a precursor for the commercial production of steroidal drugs. The role of plant growth regulators and various concentrations of NaCl during in vitro production of solasodine was studied. The in vitro yield was compared with the yield from leaves of field grown plant. Solasodine content was maximum (2.39 mg/g dry wt.) in regenerative callus when grown on medium added with 150 mM NaCl; followed by in vitro raised leaf of microshoot. Quantitative estimation of solasodine was carried out using a new HPTLC method, which is validated for its recovery and precession. The proposed HPTLC method showed a good linear relationship (r(2)=0.994) in 50-2000 ng/spot concentration ranges. The data demonstrate that the solasodine production in cultures was growth dependent. (+info)
Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.
Anti-seizure activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum nigrum linn (solanaceae) in experimental animals.
BACKGROUND: Solanum nigrum is claimed in traditional medical practice, to be useful in the treatment of epilepsy in some parts of Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: To study the anti-convulsant property of the aqueous extract of the leaves of S. nigrum in chicks, mice and rats. METHOD: Aqueous extracts were administered intraperitoneally, at a pre-treatment time of 30 minutes, at graded doses and animals were challenged with different types of proconvulsants. RESULTS: The aqueous leaf extract produced a significantly (P<0.05) dose dependent protection against electrically-induced seizure in chicks and rats, pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice and rats and picrotoxin-induced seizure in mice and rats. The anti-seizure property of the extract was potentiated by amphetamine. CONCLUSION: The result obtained in this study suggests that the leaves of this plant may possess anti-convulsant property in chicks, mice and rats. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide signals in black nightshade leaves.