Study of apoptosis in human liver cancers.
AIM: To investigate the action of apoptosis in occurrence of liver carcinomas in vivo and the biological effect of Solanum lyratum Thumb on BEL-7404 cell line inducing apoptosis in vivo. METHODS: The apoptosis in the liver carcinoma was detected with terminal deoxynucl neotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL); the cancer cells cultured in DMED medium were treated with extract of Solanum lyratum Thumb and observed under microscope, and their DNA was assayed by gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: In vivo apoptotic cells in the cancer adjacent tissues inceased; in vivo treatment of liver cancers with extract of Solanum lyratum Thumb could induce the cells to manifest a typical apoptotic morphology. Their DNA was fractured and a characteristic ladder pattern could be found using electrophoresis. CONCLUSION: In vivo the apoptosis of carcinomas was lower; maybe the cells divided quickly and then the cancers occurred. In the cancer adjacent tissues,the apoptosis pricked up, and in vivo Solanum lyratum Thumb could induce the apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells. (+info)
Bower decorations attract females but provoke other male spotted bowerbirds: bower owners resolve this trade-off.
Elaborate secondary sexual traits offset the costs that they impose on their bearer by facilitating reproductive benefits, through increased success in intrasexual contests or increased attractiveness to choosy mates. Some traits enhance both strategies. Conversely, I show that spotted bowerbirds Chlamydera maculata may face a trade-off. The trait that best predicts their mating success, numbers of Solanum berries exhibited on a bower, also provokes increased intrasexual aggression in the form of bower destructions by neighbouring bower owners, which reduce the quality of the male's bower. At natural berry numbers, levels of mating success in the population are skewed, but levels of destruction do not vary with berry number. When berry numbers are artificially exaggerated, increased levels of destructions occur, but mating success does not increase. When offered excess berries, either to add to the bower or artificially placed on the bower, bower owners preferred to use numbers of berries related to the number that they displayed naturally. This decision is made without direct experience of the attendant changes in destruction or mating success. This indicates that bower owners may assess their own social standing in relation to their neighbours and modulate their display accordingly. (+info)
The role of 2n gametes and endosperm balance number in the origin and evolution of polyploids in the tuber-bearing Solanums.
Polyploidization has played a major role in the origin and evolution of polyploid species. In this article we outline the unique characteristics of 2n gametes and implications of their participation in the evolution of polyploid Solanum species. The genetic consequences of 2n gametes indicate that sexual polyploidization results in greater variability, fitness, and heterozygosity than does somatic doubling. Further, the mechanisms of 2n gamete formation and the frequency of 2n gamete-forming genes in present polyploids and their ancestral species provide additional evidence of their involvement. Equally important is the endosperm, via the endosperm balance number (EBN) incompatibility system, in complementing the role of 2n gametes. In fact, the EBN system acts as a screen for either 1n or 2n gametes, depending on the EBN and chromosome numbers of parental species. EBN in combination with 2n gametes maintains the ploidy integrity of diploid ancestral species, while providing the flexibility for either unilateral or bilateral sexual polyploidization. (+info)
The starch from Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill. fruit is not a hypoglycemic agent.
We have investigated the hypoglycemic effect induced by the starch obtained from the unripe fruits of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae). Per os administration of the starch (1000 or 2000 mg/kg, twice daily for 7 days, N = 6) did not change glycemia levels of nondiabetic female Swiss mice weighing 25-30 g. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, similar treatment with the starch did not change the elevated glycemia 3 h after the last dose (diabetic treated with saline = 288 17/309 18; starch 1000 mg/kg = 295 +/- 33; starch 2000 mg/kg = 258 +/- 37; N = 5). In animals fasted for 15 h, per os administration of glucose (600 mg/kg) significantly increased glycemia 1 h later. Previous (-30 min) treatment of the animals with the starch (1000 or 2000 mg/kg; N = 5) did not change the increase of glycemia. Per os administration of the starch (1000 or 2000 mg kg-1 day-1, twice daily for 7 days) did not induce body weight gain or loss. The chemical analysis of the starch indicated the presence of glycoalkaloids, a finding that represents a reason for concern since many of these substances are generally toxic. In interviews with 56 diabetic patients, 29 medicinal plants were reported as useful in their treatment of diabetes and S. lycocarpum was the sixth most frequently mentioned. All patients interviewed reported that they also used insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs. The results of the present study do not provide evidence for a hypoglycemic effect associated with the polysaccharide fraction of S. lycocarpum in either normal or hyperglycemic mice. These data demonstrate the need for adequate pharmacological investigation of the natural products widely used in folk medicine. (+info)
Pollen performance before and during the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition of pollen tube growth.
For species with bicellular pollen, the attrition of pollen tubes is often greatest where the style narrows at the transition between stigmatic tissue and the transmitting tissue of the style. In this region, the tubes switch from predominantly autotrophic to predominantly heterotrophic growth, the generative cell divides, the first callose plugs are produced, and, in species with RNase-type self-incompatibility (SI), incompatible tubes are arrested. We review the literature and present new findings concerning the genetic, environmental and stylar influences on the performance of pollen before and during the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition of pollen tube growth. We found that the ability of the paternal sporophyte to provision its pollen during development significantly influences pollen performance during the autotrophic growth phase. Consequently, under conditions of pollen competition, pollen selection during the autotrophic phase is acting on the phenotype of the paternal sporophyte. In a field experiment, using Cucurbita pepo, we found broad-sense heritable variation for herbivore-pathogen resistance, and that the most resistant families produced larger and better performing pollen when the paternal sporophytes were not protected by insecticides, indicating that selection during the autotrophic phase can act on traits that are not expressed by the microgametophyte. In a study of a weedy SI species, Solanum carolinense, we found that the ability of the styles to arrest self-pollen tubes at the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition changes with floral age and the presence of developing fruits. These findings have important implications for selection at the level of the microgametophyte and the evolution of mating systems of plants. (+info)
Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight.
Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. Control of late blight in the United States and other developed countries relies extensively on fungicide application. We previously demonstrated that the wild diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum is highly resistant to all known races of P. infestans. Potato germplasm derived from S. bulbocastanum has shown durable and effective resistance in the field. Here we report the cloning of the major resistance gene RB in S. bulbocastanum by using a map-based approach in combination with a long-range (LR)-PCR strategy. A cluster of four resistance genes of the CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-Leu-rich repeat) class was found within the genetically mapped RB region. Transgenic plants containing a LR-PCR product of one of these four genes displayed broad spectrum late blight resistance. The cloned RB gene provides a new resource for developing late blight-resistant potato varieties. Our results also demonstrate that LR-PCR is a valuable approach to isolate genes that cannot be maintained in the bacterial artificial chromosome system. (+info)
Cytotoxic activity of steroidal glycosides from solanum plants.
Since some Solanum-genera plants have traditionally been used as anti-cancer and anti-herpes agents from olden times, we examined the cytotoxic activity of typical steroidal glycosides with the framework of spirostane, furostane, spirosolane, and pregnane obtained from Solanum plants. Among these steroidal glycosides, the spirostanol glycosides having a beta-lycotetraosyl moiety were the most effective against PC-12 and HCT-116 cell lines. The potency of activity was observed to be decreased in the order of spirostane, furostane, spirosolane, and pregnane type steroid glycosides. It was also suggested that the activity depend on the kind of oligosaccharide moiety and aglycone moiety. (+info)
Sheltered load associated with S-alleles in Solanum carolinense.
Bud pollinations allowed me to examine the effects of homozygosity at loci in the area of suppressed recombination around the S-locus in Solanum carolinense, whose S-alleles show surprisingly low diversification rates. The total number of seeds produced was lower for incompatible than compatible pollinations, revealing that self-incompatibility was only somewhat overcome by bud pollination. However, low seed set in incompatible crosses was not due solely to the incompatibility response; crosses between distinct plants sharing the same alleles at the S-locus led to dramatically high seed abortion, nearly equal to that found upon selfing. An excess of heterozygotes in the surviving progeny supports the supposition that these high abortion rates are due to sheltered load, that is, previously unexpressed load accumulated due to enforced heterozygosity and recombination suppression around the S-locus. Of the seven alleles examined in total, two showed evidence of severe load and five did not. The magnitude of load was consistent with terminal branch length in some, but not all, cases. (+info)