Obturator internus muscle abscess in children: report of seven cases and review.
Obturator internus muscle (OIM) abscess is an uncommon entity often mistaken for septic arthritis of the hip. We describe seven children with OIM abscess and review seven previously reported cases. The most common presenting symptoms were hip or thigh pain (14 patients), fever (13), and limp (13). The hip was flexed, abducted, and externally rotated in 11 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) were diagnostic for OIM abscess in the 14 patients. Associated abscesses were located in the obturator externus muscle (5 patients), psoas muscle (2), and iliac muscle (1). The etiologic agents were Staphylococcus aureus (8 patients), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2), and Enterococcus faecalis (1). Three patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous drainage, and three had surgical drainage. Three patients had ischial osteomyelitis in addition to OIM abscess. The 11 children with uncomplicated OIM abscess were treated for a median of 28 days. All patients had an uneventful recovery. (+info
Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review.
We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required. (+info
Linezolid activity compared to those of selected macrolides and other agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from soft tissue bite infections in humans.
Linezolid was tested against 420 aerobes and anaerobes, including 148 Pasteurella isolates, by an agar dilution method. Linezolid was active against all Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica isolates and most Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella dagmatis, and Pasteurella stomatis isolates. The MIC was +info)
Activity of gatifloxacin compared to those of five other quinolones versus aerobic and anaerobic isolates from skin and soft tissue samples of human and animal bite wound infections.
The activity of gatifloxacin against 308 aerobes and 112 anaerobes isolated from bite wound infections was studied. Gatifloxacin was active at +info)
A two-component regulatory system, CsrR-CsrS, represses expression of three Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors, hyaluronic acid capsule, streptolysin S, and pyrogenic exotoxin B.
Certain Tn916 insertions in the chromosome of an M1-type, nonmucoid Streptococcus pyogenes isolate (MGAS166) were previously shown to result in stable mucoidy with increased expression of the capsular synthetic genes. The transposon insertions in these strains are directly upstream of an apparent operon encoding a two-component regulatory system, designated csrR-csrS. Compared with MGAS166, these mucoid mutants are more hemolytic and cause significantly more tissue damage in a murine model of skin infection. To extend these observations, we constructed an in-frame deletion in the gene encoding the response regulator, csrR, and we evaluated the expression of other known S. pyogenes virulence factors. We discovered that csrR mutants have enhanced transcription of sagA, a gene associated with streptolysin S (SLS) and speB, the gene encoding pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). The mutants also express substantially higher SLS activity and SpeB antigen in late-exponential-phase cultures. There is no change in expression of emm, scpA, sic, or cpa (genes encoding other S. pyogenes virulence factors). CsrR- strains but not the wild-type parental strain produce necrotizing lesions in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection. A double mutant with deletions in both csrR and the capsular synthesis genes caused fewer and smaller necrotic skin lesions than the csrR mutants. However, this nonmucoid csrR strain was more likely than the wild type to yield necrotic lesions, suggesting that mucoidy contributes to virulence in this model of infection but that there are other csrR-regulated factors involved in the production of necrotic lesions. (+info
Tuberculosis of the foot.
In 44 patients with tuberculosis of the foot we identified five radiological patterns of lesions; cystic, rheumatoid, subperiosteal, kissing and spina ventosa. Cystic destruction had the best outcome and rheumatoid the poorest. All the patients were cured after antituberculous treatment for 18 months, and none required surgery. (+info
In vitro activity of fusidic acid against streptococci isolated from skin and soft tissue infections.
The in vitro activity of fusidic acid was evaluated against 242 strains of streptococci isolated from skin and soft tissue infections during a prospective multicentre study. Nearly 90% of strains were isolated from dermatology, emergency and medicine units. Groups A, B, C and G streptococci represented, respectively, 41.9, 20.6, 4.4 and 27.8% of the strains. The activity of fusidic acid was dependent on the media used. MICs were generally one dilution lower with heart infusion agar than with Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% horse blood (MIC(90) for the whole streptococcal population = 8 mg/L and 16 mg/L, respectively). The distribution of MICs was unimodal and only two strains displayed MICs of fusidic acid >/= 64 mg/L. In both media, fusidic acid was moderately active against streptococci. However, antibiotic concentrations obtained in the skin exceed the MIC(90) of fusidic acid for streptococci, possibly explaining its clinical efficacy in the treatment of common cutaneous infections. (+info
Unexplained illness and death among injecting-drug users--Glasgow, Scotland; Dublin, Ireland; and England, April-June 2000.
Since April 19, 2000, 30 injecting-drug users (IDUs) died or were hospitalized with unexplained severe illness in Glasgow, Scotland. Illness was characterized by extensive local inflammation at a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection site often followed by hypotension and circulatory collapse. Since April 24, 2000, 15 IDUs in Dublin, Ireland, and 14 IDUs in England with similar illnesses have been identified. Despite debridement and broad spectrum antibiotics, 30 (51%) of the 59 patients in all three countries have died. This report further describes the clinical syndrome and key epidemiologic features of the illness as characterized by a preliminary investigation by health authorities in Scotland, Ireland, England, and the United States (1). (+info