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(1/903) Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

(2/903) The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs.

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

(3/903) Kinins modulate the sodium-dependent autoregulation of renal medullary blood flow.

OBJECTIVE: In the recent past it has become clear that the kallikrein-kinin system is closely intertwined with long-term blood pressure regulation. It was shown that a kinin B2 receptor blockade leads to a sodium-dependent rise in blood pressure. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, however, remain unclear. The osmotic gradient of the renal medulla is a prerequisite for the preservation of volume and sodium by the kidney. We thus hypothesized, that a kinin dependent modulation of medullary blood flow accounts for the influence of sodium on blood pressure. METHODS: In 39 urethane anaesthetized rats pressure dependent regulation of whole kidney blood flow and cortical and medullary blood flow were estimated via laser-Doppler flux by a stepwise reduction of renal perfusion pressure to 30 mm Hg. RESULTS: In controls (n = 15), a reduction in renal perfusion pressure to 30 mm Hg lead to a concomitant reduction in whole kidney blood flow (25 +/- 3% of baseline) and cortical laser-Doppler flux (36 +/- 5% of baseline). In contrast, medullary laser-Doppler flux decreased only to 79 +/- 8% of the baseline level. Providing a 2% sodium chloride solution as drinking water over 5 days (n = 12), resulted in a significantly lower capability to autoregulate medullary flow (50 +/- 6% of baseline, P < 0.05). Acute subcutaneous administration of Hoe 140, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist (300 micrograms/kg bwt), restored autoregulation of medullary flow to almost normal levels (93 +/- 12% of baseline, P < 0.01 versus high sodium diet alone, n = 12). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that B2 receptor blockade restores the attenuated autoregulation of medullary Doppler flux during sodium enriched diet. This, suggests that the kinin dependent impact of sodium on blood pressure regulation is mediated by modulations of medullary blood flow autoregulation.  (+info)

(4/903) Attenuation by all-trans-retinoic acid of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.

The effect of prolonged administration of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labelling and apoptotic indices and immunoreactivity of transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha in the gastric cancers was investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, the rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and subcutaneous injections of RA at doses of 0.75 or 1.5 mg kg(-1) body weight every other day. In week 52, oral supplementation with sodium chloride significantly increased the incidence of gastric cancers compared with the untreated controls. Long-term administration of RA at both doses significantly reduced the incidence of gastric cancers, which was enhanced by oral administration of sodium chloride. RA at both doses significantly decreased the labelling index and TGF-alpha immunoreactivity of gastric cancers, which were enhanced by administration of sodium chloride, and significantly increased the apoptotic index of cancers, which was lowered by administration of sodium chloride. These findings suggest that RA attenuates gastric carcinogenesis, enhanced by sodium chloride, by increasing apoptosis, decreasing DNA synthesis, and reducing TGF-alpha expression in gastric cancers.  (+info)

(5/903) Actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide on the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa.

Previous studies, by this group and others, have shown that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates aldosterone secretion, and that the actions of VIP on aldosterone secretion by the rat adrenal cortex are blocked by beta adrenergic antagonists, suggesting that VIP may act by the local release of catecholamines. The present studies were designed to test this hypothesis further, by measuring catecholamine release by adrenal capsular tissue in response to VIP stimulation. Using intact capsular tissue it was found that VIP caused a dose-dependent increase in aldosterone secretion, with a concomitant increase in both adrenaline and noradrenaline release. The effects of VIP on aldosterone secretion were inhibited by atenolol, a beta1 adrenergic antagonist, but not by ICI-118,551, a beta2 adrenergic antagonist. Binding studies were carried out to investigate VIP receptors. It was found that adrenal zona glomerulosa tissue from control rats contained specific VIP binding sites (Bmax 853+/-101 fmol/mg protein; Kd 2.26+/-0.45 nmol/l). VIP binding was not displaced by ACTH, angiotensin II or by either of the beta adrenergic antagonists. The response to VIP in adrenals obtained from rats fed a low sodium diet was also investigated. Previous studies have found that adrenals from animals on a low sodium diet exhibit increased responsiveness to VIP. Specific VIP binding sites were identified, although the concentration or affinity of binding sites in the low sodium group was not significantly different from the controls. In the low sodium group VIP was found to increase catecholamine release to the same extent as in the control group, however, in contrast to the control group, the adrenal response to VIP was not altered by adrenergic antagonists in the low sodium group. These data provide strong support for the hypothesis that VIP acts by the local release of catecholamines in adrenal zona glomerulosa tissue in normal animals. It does not appear that VIP acts through the same mechanism in animals maintained on a low sodium diet. The mechanism by which VIP stimulates aldosterone in this group remains to be determined.  (+info)

(6/903) Responses of blood pressure and catecholamine metabolism to high salt loading in endothelin-1 knockout mice.

The molecular mechanism responsible for salt sensitivity is poorly understood. Mice heterozygous for the null mutation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene, Edn1, may be a potential tool for studying this mechanism, because they have elevated blood pressure and disturbances in central sympathetic nerve regulation. In the present study, we used this mouse model to examine the degree to which ET-1 contributes to the responses of blood pressure and catecholamine metabolism to high salt loading. Male Edn1+/- heterozygous mice and Edn1+/+ wild-type littermates were given either a high salt (8%) or a normal salt (0.7%) diet for 4 wk. During the normal diet, renal ET-1 levels in Edn1+/- mice were approximately 50% lower than ET-1 levels in wild-type mice, whereas the high salt diet decreased renal ET-1 levels by about 50% in both Edn1+/- and wild-type mice. The high salt diet significantly increased urinary sodium excretion and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) but did not affect circulating plasma volume, serum electrolytes, creatinine clearance, or systemic blood pressure. In addition, urinary norepinephrine and normetanephrine excretion were significantly increased, indicating that salt loading can increase sympathetic nerve activity in normal mice. These responses to salt loading did not differ between Edn1+/- mice and their wild-type littermates. We conclude that physiological changes in ET-1 production do not affect the responses of blood pressure and catecholamine metabolism to salt loading, although the renal ET-1 content is decreased by salt loading.  (+info)

(7/903) Sodium depletion and aldosterone decrease dopamine transporter activity in nucleus accumbens but not striatum.

Motivated behaviors, including sodium (Na) appetite, are correlated with increased dopamine (DA) transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). DA transporter (DAT) modulation affects DA transmission and may play a role in motivated behaviors. In vivo Na depletion, which reliably induces Na appetite, was correlated with robust decreases in DA uptake via the DAT in the rat NAc with rotating disk electrode voltammetry [1,277 +/- 162 vs. 575 +/- 89 pmol. s-1. g-1; Vmax of transport for control vs. Na-depleted tissue]. Plasma aldosterone (Aldo) levels increase after in vivo Na depletion and contribute to Na appetite. Decreased DAT activity in the NAc was observed after in vitro Aldo treatment (428 +/- 28 vs. 300 +/- 25 pmol. s-1. g-1). Neither treatment affected DAT activity in the striatum. These results suggest that a direct action of Aldo is one possible mechanism by which Na depletion induces a reduction in DAT activity in the NAc. Reduced DAT activity may play a role in generating increased NAc DA transmission during Na appetite, which may underlie the motivating properties of Na for the Na-depleted rat.  (+info)

(8/903) Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 1. Methods and an overview of the Canadian recommendations. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals on lifestyle changes to prevent and control hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: For people at risk for hypertension, there are a number of lifestyle options that may avert the condition--maintaining a healthy body weight, moderating consumption of alcohol, exercising, reducing sodium intake, altering intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, and reducing stress. Following these options will maintain or reduce the risk of hypertension. For people who already have hypertension, the options for controlling the condition are lifestyle modification, antihypertensive medications or a combination of these options; with no treatment, these people remain at risk for the complications of hypertension. OUTCOMES: The health outcomes considered were changes in blood pressure and in morbidity and mortality rates. Because of insufficient evidence, no economic outcomes were considered. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period January 1996 to September 1996 for each of the interventions studied. Reference lists were scanned, experts were polled, and the personal files of the authors were used to identify other studies. All relevant articles were reviewed, classified according to study design and graded according to level of evidence. VALUES: A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Lifestyle modification by means of weight loss (or maintenance of healthy body weight), regular exercise and low alcohol consumption will reduce the blood pressure of appropriately selected normotensive and hypertensive people. Sodium restriction and stress management will reduce the blood pressure of appropriately selected hypertensive patients. The side effects of these therapies are few, and the indirect benefits are well known. There are certainly costs associated with lifestyle modification, but they were not measured in the studies reviewed. Supplementing the diet with potassium, calcium and magnesium has not been associated with a clinically important reduction in blood pressure in people consuming a healthy diet. RECOMMENDATIONS: (1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine the body mass index (weight in kilograms/[height in metres]2) and alcohol consumption of all adult patients and assess sodium consumption and stress levels in all hypertensive patients. (2) To reduce blood pressure in the population at large, it is recommended that Canadians attain and maintain a healthy body mass index. For those who choose to drink alcohol intake should be limited to 2 or fewer standard drinks per day (maximum of 14/week for men and 9/week for women). Adults should exercise regularly. (3) To reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients, individualized therapy is recommended. This therapy should emphasize weight loss for overweight patients, abstinence from or moderation in alcohol intake, regular exercise, restriction of sodium intake and, in appropriate circumstances, individualized cognitive behaviour modification to reduce the negative effects of stress. VALIDATION: The recommendations were reviewed by all of the sponsoring organizations and by participants in a satellite symposium of the fourth international Conference on Preventive Cardiology. They are similar to those of the World Hypertension League and the Joint National committee, with the exception of the recommendations on stress management, which are based on new information. They have not been clinically tested. SPONSORS: The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.  (+info)