(1/1462) Ultra-slow inactivation in mu1 Na+ channels is produced by a structural rearrangement of the outer vestibule.
While studying the adult rat skeletal muscle Na+ channel outer vestibule, we found that certain mutations of the lysine residue in the domain III P region at amino acid position 1237 of the alpha subunit, which is essential for the Na+ selectivity of the channel, produced substantial changes in the inactivation process. When skeletal muscle alpha subunits (micro1) with K1237 mutated to either serine (K1237S) or glutamic acid (K1237E) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and depolarized for several minutes, the channels entered a state of inactivation from which recovery was very slow, i.e., the time constants of entry into and exit from this state were in the order of approximately 100 s. We refer to this process as "ultra-slow inactivation". By contrast, wild-type channels and channels with the charge-preserving mutation K1237R largely recovered within approximately 60 s, with only 20-30% of the current showing ultra-slow recovery. Coexpression of the rat brain beta1 subunit along with the K1237E alpha subunit tended to accelerate the faster components of recovery from inactivation, as has been reported previously of native channels, but had no effect on the mutation-induced ultra-slow inactivation. This implied that ultra-slow inactivation was a distinct process different from normal inactivation. Binding to the pore of a partially blocking peptide reduced the number of channels entering the ultra-slow inactivation state, possibly by interference with a structural rearrangement of the outer vestibule. Thus, ultra-slow inactivation, favored by charge-altering mutations at site 1237 in micro1 Na+ channels, may be analogous to C-type inactivation in Shaker K+ channels. (+info)
(2/1462) Tetraethylammonium block of the BNC1 channel.
The brain Na+ channel-1 (BNC1, also known as MDEG1 or ASIC2) is a member of the DEG/ENaC cation channel family. Mutation of a specific residue (Gly430) that lies N-terminal to the second membrane-spanning domain activates BNC1 and converts it from a Na+-selective channel to one permeable to both Na+ and K+. Because all K+ channels are blocked by tetraethylammonium (TEA), we asked if TEA would inhibit BNC1 with a mutation at residue 430. External TEA blocked BNC1 when residue 430 was a Val or a Thr. Block was steeply voltage-dependent and was reduced when current was outward, suggesting multi-ion block within the channel pore. Block was dependent on the size of the quaternary ammonium; the smaller tetramethylammonium blocked with similar properties, whereas the larger tetrapropylammonium had little effect. When residue 430 was Phe, the effects of tetramethylammonium and tetrapropylammonium were not altered. In contrast, block by TEA was much less voltage-dependent, suggesting that the Phe mutation introduced a new TEA binding site located approximately 30% of the way across the electric field. These results provide insight into the structure and function of BNC1 and suggest that TEA may be a useful tool to probe function of this channel family. (+info)
(3/1462) RSD1000: a novel antiarrhythmic agent with increased potency under acidic and high-potassium conditions.
This study reports the use of a novel agent, RSD1000 [(+/-)-trans-[2-(4-morpholinyl)cyclohexyl]naphthalene-1-acetate mono hydrochloride], to test the hypothesis that a drug with pKa close to the pH found in ischemic tissue may have selective antiarrhythmic actions against ischemia-induced arrhythmias. The antiarrhythmic ED50 for RSD1000 against ischemic arrhythmias was 2.5 +/- 0.1 micromol/kg/min in rats. This value was significantly lower than doses that suppressed electrically induced arrhythmias. In isolated rat hearts, RSD1000 was approximately 40 times more potent in producing ECG changes (i.e., P-R and QRS prolongation) in acid (pHo = 6.4) and high [K+]o (10.8 mM) buffer than in normal buffer (pHo = 7.4; [K+]o = 3.4 mM). In patch-clamped, whole-cell rat cardiac myocytes, inhibition of sodium (INa) currents by RSD1000 was pH- and use-dependent. The IC50 for INa blockade was lower (P <.05) in acid (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM) than in pH 7.3 (2.9 +/- 0.3 microM), respectively, whereas the IC50 for blockade of transient outward potassium current (ITO) at pH = 6.4 and 7.3 was 3.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.8 +/- 0.1 microM, respectively. Mixed ion channel block in ischemic myocardium with minimal effects on normal cardiac tissue, as governed by the low pKa of RSD1000, may account for its antiarrhythmic activity against ischemia-induced arrhythmias. (+info)
(4/1462) Cardiac sodium channel Markov model with temperature dependence and recovery from inactivation.
A Markov model of the cardiac sodium channel is presented. The model is similar to the CA1 hippocampal neuron sodium channel model developed by Kuo and Bean (1994. Neuron. 12:819-829) with the following modifications: 1) an additional open state is added; 2) open-inactivated transitions are made voltage-dependent; and 3) channel rate constants are exponential functions of enthalpy, entropy, and voltage and have explicit temperature dependence. Model parameters are determined using a simulated annealing algorithm to minimize the error between model responses and various experimental data sets. The model reproduces a wide range of experimental data including ionic currents, gating currents, tail currents, steady-state inactivation, recovery from inactivation, and open time distributions over a temperature range of 10 degrees C to 25 degrees C. The model also predicts measures of single channel activity such as first latency, probability of a null sweep, and probability of reopening. (+info)
(5/1462) Calcium block of Na+ channels and its effect on closing rate.
Calcium ion transiently blocks Na+ channels, and it shortens the time course for closing of their activation gates. We examined the relation between block and closing kinetics by using the Na+ channels natively expressed in GH3 cells, a clonal line of rat pituitary cells. To simplify analysis, inactivation of the Na+ channels was destroyed by including papain in the internal medium. All divalent cations tested, and trivalent La3+, blocked a progressively larger fraction of the channels as their concentration increased, and they accelerated the closing of the Na+ channel activation gate. For calcium, the most extensively studied cation, there is an approximately linear relation between the fraction of the channels that are calcium-blocked and the closing rate. Extrapolation of the data to very low calcium suggests that closing rate is near zero when there is no block. Analysis shows that, almost with certainty, the channels can close when occupied by calcium. The analysis further suggests that the channels close preferentially or exclusively from the calcium-blocked state. (+info)
(6/1462) Distinguishing surface effects of calcium ion from pore-occupancy effects in Na+ channels.
The effects of calcium ion on the Na+ activation gate were studied in squid giant axons. Saxitoxin (STX) was used to block ion entry into Na+ channels without hindering access to the membrane surface, making it possible to distinguish surface effects of calcium from pore-occupancy effects. In the presence of STX, gating kinetics were measured from gating current (Ig). The kinetic effects of external calcium concentration changes were small when STX was present. In the absence of STX, lowering the calcium concentration (from 100 to 10 mM) slowed the closing of Na+ channels (measured from INa tails) by more than a factor of 2. Surprisingly, the voltage sensitivity of closing kinetics changed with calcium concentration, and it was modified by STX. Voltage sensitivity apparently depends in part on the ability of calcium to enter and block the channels as voltage is driven negative. In external medium with no added calcium, INa tail current initially increases in amplitude severalfold with the relief of calcium block, then progressively slows and gets smaller, as calcium diffuses out of the layers investing the axon. INa tails seen just before the current disappears suggest that closing in the absence of channel block is very slow or does not occur. INa amplitude and kinetics are completely restored when calcium is returned. The results strongly suggest that calcium occupancy is a requirement for channel closing and that nonoccupied channels fold reversibly into a nonfunctional conformation. (+info)
(7/1462) Osmotic regulation of airway reactivity by epithelium.
Inhalation of nonisotonic solutions can elicit pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic airways. We evaluated the hypothesis that the respiratory epithelium is involved in responses of the airways to nonisotonic solutions using the guinea pig isolated, perfused trachea preparation to restrict applied agents to the mucosal (intraluminal) or serosal (extraluminal) surface of the airway. In methacholine-contracted tracheae, intraluminally applied NaCl or KCl equipotently caused relaxation that was unaffected by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, but was attenuated by removal of the epithelium and Na+ and Cl- channel blockers. Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and nitric oxide synthase blockers caused a slight inhibition of relaxation, whereas Na+,K+-pump inhibition produced a small potentiation. Intraluminal hyperosmolar KCl and NaCl inhibited contractions in response to intra- or extraluminally applied methacholine, as well as neurogenic cholinergic contractions elicited with electric field stimulation (+/- indomethacin). Extraluminally applied NaCl and KCl elicited epithelium-dependent relaxation (which for KCl was followed by contraction). In contrast to the effects of hyperosmolarity, intraluminal hypo-osmolarity caused papaverine-inhibitable contractions (+/- epithelium). These findings suggest that the epithelium is an osmotic sensor which, through the release of epithelium-derived relaxing factor, can regulate airway diameter by modulating smooth muscle responsiveness and excitatory neurotransmission. (+info)
(8/1462) N-type calcium channel inactivation probed by gating-current analysis.
N-type calcium channels inactivate most rapidly in response to moderate, not extreme depolarization. This behavior reflects an inactivation rate that bears a U-shaped dependence on voltage. Despite this apparent similarity to calcium-dependent inactivation, N-type channel inactivation is insensitive to the identity of divalent charge carrier and, in some reports, to the level of internal buffering of divalent cations. Hence, the inactivation of N-type channels fits poorly with the "classic" profile for either voltage-dependent or calcium-dependent inactivation. To investigate this unusual inactivation behavior, we expressed recombinant N-type calcium channels in mammalian HEK 293 cells, permitting in-depth correlation of ionic current inactivation with potential alterations of gating current properties. Such correlative measurements have been particularly useful in distinguishing among various inactivation mechanisms in other voltage-gated channels. Our main results are the following: 1) The degree of gating charge immobilization was unchanged by the block of ionic current and precisely matched by the extent of ionic current inactivation. These results argue for a purely voltage-dependent mechanism of inactivation. 2) The inactivation rate was fastest at a voltage where only approximately (1)/(3) of the total gating charge had moved. This unusual experimental finding implies that inactivation occurs most rapidly from intermediate closed conformations along the activation pathway, as we demonstrate with novel analytic arguments applied to coupled-inactivation schemes. These results provide strong, complementary support for a "preferential closed-state" inactivation mechanism, recently proposed on the basis of ionic current measurements of recombinant N-type channels (Patil et al., . Neuron. 20:1027-1038). (+info)