The sarcoplasmic reticulum and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger both contribute to the Ca2+ transient of failing human ventricular myocytes.
Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the small, slowly decaying Ca2+ transients of failing human ventricular myocytes. Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from explanted hearts of patients with severe heart failure (n=18). Cytosolic Ca2+, contraction, and action potentials were measured by using indo-1, edge detection, and patch pipettes, respectively. Selective inhibitors of SR Ca2+ transport (thapsigargin) and reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity (No. 7943, Kanebo Ltd) were used to define the respective contribution of these processes to the Ca2+ transient. Ca2+ transients and contractions induced by action potentials (AP transients) at 0.5 Hz exhibited phasic and tonic components. The duration of the tonic component was determined by the action potential duration. Ca2+ transients induced by caffeine (Caf transients) exhibited only a phasic component with a rapid rate of decay that was dependent on extracellular Na+. The SR Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin abolished the phasic component of the AP Ca2+ transient and of the Caf transient but had no significant effect on the tonic component of the AP transient. The Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor No. 7943 eliminated the tonic component of the AP transient and reduced the magnitude of the phasic component. In failing human myocytes, Ca2+ transients and contractions exhibit an SR-related, phasic component and a slow, reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange-related tonic component. These findings suggest that Ca2+ influx via reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange during the action potential may contribute to the slow decay of the Ca2+ transient in failing human myocytes. (+info)
Effects of impaired Ca2+ homeostasis on contraction in postinfarction myocytes.
The significance of altered Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways on contractile abnormalities of myocytes isolated from rat hearts 3 wk after myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated by varying extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o, 0.6-5.0 mM) and pacing frequency (0.1-5.0 Hz). Myocytes isolated from 3-wk MI hearts were significantly longer than those from sham-treated (Sham) hearts (125 +/- 1 vs. 114 +/- 1 micrometer, P < 0.0001). At high [Ca2+]o and low pacing frequency, conditions that preferentially favored Ca2+ influx over efflux, Sham myocytes shortened to a greater extent than 3-wk MI myocytes. Conversely, under conditions that favored Ca2+ efflux (low [Ca2+]o and high pacing frequency), MI myocytes shortened more than Sham myocytes. At intermediate [Ca2+]o and pacing frequencies, differences in steady-state contraction amplitudes between Sham and MI myocytes were no longer significant. Collectively, the interpretation of these data was that Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways were subnormal in MI myocytes and that they contributed to abnormal cellular contractile behavior. Because Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity, but not whole cell Ca2+ current, was depressed in 3-wk MI rat myocytes, our results on steady-state contraction are consistent with, but not proof of, the hypothesis that depressed Na+/Ca2+ exchange accounted for abnormal contractility in MI myocytes. The effects of depressed Na+/Ca2+ exchange on MI myocyte mechanical activity were further evaluated in relaxation from caffeine-induced contractures. Because Ca2+ uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum was inhibited by caffeine and with the assumption that intracellular Na+ and membrane potential were similar between Sham and MI myocytes, myocyte relaxation from caffeine-induced contracture can be taken as an estimate of Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange. In MI myocytes, in which Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity was depressed, the half time of relaxation (1.54 +/- 0.14 s) was significantly (P < 0.02) prolonged compared with that measured in Sham myocytes (1.10 +/- 0.10 s). (+info)
Direct evidence of Na+/Ca2+ exchange in squid rhabdomeric membranes.
Na+/Ca2+ exchange has been investigated in squid (Loligo pealei) rhabdomeric membranes. Ca2+-containing vesicles have been prepared from purified rhabdomeric membranes by extrusion through polycarbonate filters of 1-micrometer pore size. After removal of external Ca2+, up to 90% of the entrapped Ca2+ could be specifically released by the addition of Na+; this finding indicates that most of the vesicles contained Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. The Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux had a half-maximum value (K1/2) of approximately 44 mM and a Hill coefficient of approximately 1.7. The maximal Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux was approximately 0.6 nmol Ca2+. s-1. mg protein-1. Similar Na+-induced Ca2+ effluxes were measured if K+ was replaced with Li+ or Cs+. Vesicles loaded with Ca2+ by Na+/Ca2+ exchange also released this Ca2+ by Na+/Ca2+ exchange, suggesting that Na+/Ca2+ exchange operated in both forward and reverse modes. Limited proteolysis by trypsin resulted in a rate of Ca2+ efflux enhanced by approximately fivefold when efflux was activated with 95 mM NaCl. For vesicles subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin, Na+/Ca2+ exchange was characterized by a K1/2 of approximately 25 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.6. For these vesicles, the maximal Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux was about twice as great as in control vesicles. We conclude that Na+/Ca2+ exchange proteins localized in rhabdomeric membranes mediate Ca2+ extrusion in squid photoreceptors. (+info)
Developmental expression of sodium entry pathways in rat nephron.
During the past several years, sites of expression of ion transport proteins in tubules from adult kidneys have been described and correlated with functional properties. Less information is available concerning sites of expression during tubule morphogenesis, although such expression patterns may be crucial to renal development. In the current studies, patterns of renal axial differentiation were defined by mapping the expression of sodium transport pathways during nephrogenesis in the rat. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to localize the Na-Pi cotransporter type 2 (NaPi2), the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), the Na/Ca exchanger (NaCa), the epithelial sodium channel (rENaC), and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD). The onset of expression of these proteins began in post-S-shape stages. NKCC2 was initially expressed at the macula densa region and later extended into the nascent ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL), whereas differentiation of the proximal tubular part of the loop of Henle showed a comparatively retarded onset when probed for NaPi2. The NCC was initially found at the distal end of the nascent distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and later extended toward the junction with the TAL. After a period of changing proportions, subsegmentation of the DCT into a proximal part expressing NCC alone and a distal part expressing NCC together with NaCa was evident. Strong coexpression of rENaC and 11HSD was observed in early nascent connecting tubule (CNT) and collecting ducts and later also in the distal portion of the DCT. Ontogeny of the expression of NCC, NaCa, 11HSD, and rENaC in the late distal convolutions indicates a heterogenous origin of the CNT. These data present a detailed analysis of the relations between the anatomic differentiation of the developing renal tubule and the expression of tubular transport proteins. (+info)
A circularized sodium-calcium exchanger exon 2 transcript.
Previous reports of Na/Ca exchanger gene 1 (NCX1) expression have revealed a major RNA transcript of 7 kilobase pairs (kb), minor transcripts of approximately 13 and approximately 4 kb, and a relatively abundant 1.8-kb RNA band. In the present report we demonstrate that the 1.8-kb message, which has a tissue and subcellular distribution matching that of full-length NCX1 but is not polyadenylated, corresponds to a perfectly circularized exon 2 species. The circular transcript contained the normal NCX1 start codon, a new stop codon introduced as a consequence of circularization, and encoded a protein corresponding to the NH2-terminal portion of NCX1, terminating just after amino acid 600 in the cytoplasmic loop. A linear version of the circular transcript was prepared and transfected into HEK-293 cells. A protein, matching the predicted size of approximately 70 kDa, was expressed, and the transfected cells possessed Na/Ca exchange activity. Although in native tissue we could not detect a protein corresponding exactly to that predicted from the circular transcript, a prominent band of slightly shorter size, possibly representing further proteolytic processing of circular transcript protein, was observed in membranes from LLC-MK2 cells and rat kidney. (+info)
Mechanisms of altered excitation-contraction coupling in canine tachycardia-induced heart failure, I: experimental studies.
Pacing-induced heart failure in the dog recapitulates many of the electrophysiological and hemodynamic abnormalities of the human disease; however, the mechanisms underlying altered Ca2+ handling have not been investigated in this model. We now show that left ventricular midmyocardial myocytes isolated from dogs subjected to 3 to 4 weeks of rapid pacing have prolonged action potentials and Ca2+ transients with reduced peaks, but durations approximately 3-fold longer than controls. To discriminate between action potential effects on Ca2+ kinetics and direct changes in Ca2+ regulatory processes, voltage-clamp steps were used to examine the time constant for cytosolic Ca2+ removal (tauCa). tauCa was prolonged by just 35% in myocytes from failing hearts after fixed voltage steps in physiological solutions (tauCa control, 216+/-25 ms, n=17; tauCa failing, 292+/-23 ms, n=22; P<0.05), but this difference was markedly accentuated when Na+/Ca2+ exchange was eliminated (tauCa control, 282+/-30 ms, n=13; tauCa failing, 576+/-83 ms, n=11; P<0. 005). Impaired sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ uptake and a greater dependence on Na+/Ca2+ exchange for cytosolic Ca2+ removal was confirmed by inhibiting SR Ca2+ ATPase with cyclopiazonic acid, which slowed Ca2+ removal more in control than in failing myocytes. beta-Adrenergic stimulation of SR Ca2+ uptake in cells from failing hearts sufficed only to accelerate tauCa to the range of unstimulated controls. Protein levels of SERCA2a, phospholamban, and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger revealed a pattern of changes qualitatively similar to the functional measurements; SERCA2a and phospholamban were both reduced in failing hearts by 28%, and Na+/Ca2+ exchange protein was increased 104% relative to controls. Thus, SR Ca2+ uptake is markedly downregulated in failing hearts, but this defect is partially compensated by enhanced Na+/Ca2+ exchange. The alterations are similar to those reported in human heart failure, which reinforces the utility of the pacing-induced dog model as a surrogate for the human disease. (+info)
Mechanisms of altered excitation-contraction coupling in canine tachycardia-induced heart failure, II: model studies.
Ca2+ transients measured in failing human ventricular myocytes exhibit reduced amplitude, slowed relaxation, and blunted frequency dependence. In the companion article (O'Rourke B, Kass DA, Tomaselli GF, Kaab S, Tunin R, Marban E. Mechanisms of altered excitation-contraction coupling in canine tachycardia-induced heart, I: experimental studies. Circ Res. 1999;84:562-570), O'Rourke et al show that Ca2+ transients recorded in myocytes isolated from canine hearts subjected to the tachycardia pacing protocol exhibit similar responses. Analyses of protein levels in these failing hearts reveal that both SR Ca2+ ATPase and phospholamban are decreased on average by 28% and that Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) protein is increased on average by 104%. In this article, we present a model of the canine midmyocardial ventricular action potential and Ca2+ transient. The model is used to estimate the degree of functional upregulation and downregulation of NCX and SR Ca2+ ATPase in heart failure using data obtained from 2 different experimental protocols. Model estimates of average SR Ca2+ ATPase functional downregulation obtained using these experimental protocols are 49% and 62%. Model estimates of average NCX functional upregulation range are 38% and 75%. Simulation of voltage-clamp Ca2+ transients indicates that such changes are sufficient to account for the reduced amplitude, altered shape, and slowed relaxation of Ca2+ transients in the failing canine heart. Model analyses also suggest that altered expression of Ca2+ handling proteins plays a significant role in prolongation of action potential duration in failing canine myocytes. (+info)
Significance of Na/Ca exchange for Ca2+ buffering and electrical activity in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.
We have combined the patch-clamp technique with microfluorimetry of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) to characterize Na/Ca exchange in mouse beta-cells and to determine its importance for [Ca2+]i buffering and shaping of glucose-induced electrical activity. The exchanger contributes to Ca2+ removal at [Ca2+]i above 1 microM, where it accounts for >35% of the total removal rate. At lower [Ca2+]i, thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+-ATPases constitute a major (70% at 0.8 microM [Ca2+]i) mechanism for Ca2+ removal. The beta-cell Na/Ca exchanger is electrogenic and has a stoichiometry of three Na+ for one Ca2+. The current arising from its operation reverses at approximately -20 mV (current inward at more negative voltages), has a conductance of 53 pS/pF (14 microM [Ca2+]i), and is abolished by removal of external Na+ or by intracellularly applied XIP (exchange inhibitory peptide). Inhibition of the exchanger results in shortening (50%) of the bursts of action potentials of glucose-stimulated beta-cells in intact islets and a slight (5 mV) hyperpolarization. Mathematical simulations suggest that the stimulatory action of glucose on beta-cell electrical activity may be accounted for in part by glucose-induced reduction of the cytoplasmic Na+ concentration with resultant activation of the exchanger. (+info)