Shrinking membership in the American Society of Animal Science: does the discipline of poultry science give us some clues? (1/332)

Concerns have been expressed by the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS) leadership about the declining membership in ASAS. I present the viewpoint that the history of the Poultry Science Association (PSA) membership and the elimination of poultry science departments from many land grant universities could be an indication of what the future holds for animal science. I suggest that the industrialization of poultry production has led to a decline in the demand for traditionally trained poultry scientists. Industrialization of swine production is proceeding rapidly, with other animal-based industries showing the same trend. If maintaining a large ASAS membership is indeed a priority, new opportunities must be developed. Equine and companion animal programs offer such possibilities, tapping into a high level of student interest.  (+info)

The nomenclature of cell death: recommendations of an ad hoc Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathologists. (2/332)

The last several years have seen considerable confusion regarding the terms "apoptosis" and "necrosis" in pathology. This situation prompted the Society of Toxicologic Pathologists to charter the Committee on the Nomenclature of Cell Death, which was charged with making recommendations about the use of the terms "apoptosis" and "necrosis" in toxicity studies. The Committee recommends use of the term "necrosis" to describe findings comprising dead cells in histological sections, regardless of the pathway by which the cells died. The modifiers "apoptotic" and "oncotic" or "mixed apoptotic and oncotic" are recommended to specify the predominant morphological cell death pathway or pathways, when appropriate. Other standard modifiers, indicating the lesion distribution and severity, may also be used in conjunction with these. "Individual cell necrosis" (also known as "single cell necrosis") may be either of the apoptotic, oncotic, or mixed types. In many cases, more traditional terms such as "coagulation necrosis" may be used to convey a meaning similar to oncotic necrosis. It is important that pathologists use terms that accurately and concisely convey the level of information appropriate to the study's needs. Furthermore, toxicologic pathologists should actively help to disseminate these recommendations to other biologists and to regulatory authorities.  (+info)

Common diagnostic test panels for clinical evaluation of new primary care outpatients in Japan: a cost-effectiveness evaluation. (3/332)

BACKGROUND: The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP) has developed a guideline for common diagnostic test utilization in new primary care outpatients. To determine the scientific and economic validity of the JSCP panel testing system, we analyzed cost-effectiveness parameters of test panels advocated. METHODS: The "Essential Laboratory Tests" panel (2) [ELT(2) panel], a package of common diagnostic tests added to the ELT(1) baseline health-status screening panel, was applied to 540 new outpatients who visited the Comprehensive Medicine Clinics in an academic medical center during 1991 to 1997. A "useful result" (UR) of testing was defined as a finding that contributed to a change in a physician's diagnosis- or decision-making, relating to a "tentative initial diagnosis" (TID) obtained from history and physical examination alone. RESULTS: Clinical usefulness was demonstrated in 259 patients with ELT(2), in whom 398 URs were generated. Clinical effectiveness (UR/TID) ranged from 1.65 (hematological) to 0.088 (neurological disease), with a cost disparity from yen1251 ( approximately $10) to yen23 037 ( approximately $200) per UR. A total of 1137 tests generated URs. We further assessed the clinical effectiveness and economic efficiency (cost/UR) of ELT(1) and restructured panels. Use of the ELT(1) alone generated 244 URs in 167 patients. The poor efficiency of the ELT(1) panel was markedly improved with the addition of certain ELT(2)-specific tests in liver/pancreatobiliary, metabolic/endocrine, and cardiovascular disease groups. CONCLUSIONS: A wide disparity in the utility of ELT panels in different patient groups does not support the JSCP recommendation of their routine use for new outpatients. Selective test combinations should be used in selected patient groups.  (+info)

A profile of the members of FASEB societies: NIH awards, degrees, and institutional affiliations, 1999. (4/332)

Data from the FASEB Directory of Members and NIH were used to develop a statistical profile of the members of FASEB Societies. For the U.S.-based scientists (exclusive of retired and student members), the most frequently reported degree was a research doctorate (69. 6%). A substantial fraction, however, reported medical degrees (19. 2%) or both research and medical degrees (8.0%). The majority of members of FASEB Societies listed academic affiliations in the directory. Industrial affiliations were reported, however, in 9.7% of the entries with smaller fractions listing associations with hospitals, independent research institutes, and government agencies. Just over one-fourth of the members of FASEB Societies were principal investigators on NIH research grants. These investigators received one-half of all NIH grants and nearly 60% of the RO1 grants.  (+info)

Remembrance of things past and concerns for the future. (5/332)

Stanley G. Schultz received the seventh annual Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Teacher of the Year Award. The following is a speech he delivered as he was presented the award at Experimental Biology '99 in Washington, DC, in April 1999.  (+info)

Physiology teaching in the developing world: models for quality learning. (6/332)

An important initiative to develop higher education and physiology teaching was launched when recommendations were deliberated at the concluding session of a four-day international workshop, Physiology Teaching in the Developing World: Models for Quality Learning, held April 5-8, 1999, at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. The event was organized under the auspices of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS), Pakistan Physiological Society, and Aga Khan University. Among other major sponsors, the Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Educational Science and Cultural Organization. Third World Academy of Sciences, and Pakistan Science Foundation were prominent.  (+info)

Science, practice and patient needs: the work of the Plinius Maior Society. (7/332)

The Plinius Maior Society is a European multinational, multidisciplinary group of clinicians and researchers in the alcoholism field, which strives for a comprehensive care concept in the management of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. The Society, using evidence-based medicine, has developed a set of protocols, in the forms of guidelines, flow-charts, leaflets and booklets, for use as tools in research on and treatment of alcohol dependence, with a view to standardize clinical research procedures and to bridge the gap between the alcoholism researcher, practitioner and patient. These protocols or tools have been subjected to a review process during their preparation, and further comments on their validity will be integrated in their updates. Seven protocols have so far been developed, two of which, 'Guidelines on Evaluation of Treatment of Alcohol Dependence' and 'Detection and Management of Patients with Psychiatric and Alcohol Use Disorders', are aimed at the clinical researcher and specialists, whereas three others [in the form of decision trees (flow-charts)] are aimed at the general practitioner and other primary health care providers. These are entitled 'Alcohol Risk Assessment and Intervention in Primary Care', 'Withdrawal from Alcohol at Home' and 'Brief Intervention in Patients with Alcohol-Related Problems'. The remaining two tools are booklets aimed at the patient, one to support initiatives for detection of drinking problems and primary intervention, namely 'Do you have this Problem? Discuss it with your Doctor!', and the other to assist the patient in relapse prevention after the early stages of treatment, namely 'On the Way to Recovery'. The protocols for the general practitioners and patients have so far been produced in seven European languages, and, as with the Guidelines, feedback from target users will be collected and incorporated in future updates. The Society continually seeks to consider areas of clinical importance for its work and, as it enters the new millennium, it hopes to address and make a significant contribution to the most pressing problem in the management of alcohol dependence, namely relapse.  (+info)

Physician-nutrition-specialist track: if we build it, will they come? Intersociety Professional Nutrition Education Consortium. (8/332)

The Intersociety Professional Nutrition Education Consortium (IPNEC) has made substantial progress in its first 2 y. With support from 9 participating nutrition societies and certification organizations and with funding from the National Institutes of Health and several nutrition industry partners, a sustained, functioning consortium has been established. The consortium's 2 principal aims are to establish educational standards for fellowship training of physician nutrition specialists (PNSs) and to create a unified mechanism for certifying physicians who are so trained. Its long-term goals are to increase the pool of PNSs to enable every US medical school to have at least one PNS on its faculty and to surmount obstacles that currently impede the incorporation of nutrition education into the curricula of medical schools and residency programs. The consortium formulated and refined a paradigm for PNSs, conducted a national role delineation survey to define the scope of the discipline of clinical nutrition, and developed a preliminary curriculum template for training PNSs that can be completed in a minimum of 6 mo. IPNEC and its sponsoring societies are strategically positioned to play an important long-term role in nutrition education for physicians. We intend to continue soliciting broad input, especially from directors of fellowship training programs in nutrition and closely related subspecialties; to develop the core content for fellowships in nutrition and related subspecialties; and to initiate a unified PNS certification examination.  (+info)