Continuing Medical Education in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics: report of a questionnaire survey.
AIMS: To seek the views of medically qualified members of the Clinical Section of the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) on their perceived needs for Continuing Medical Education (CME); on how and by whom these needs should be addressed; and on how the outcome of any educational intervention might best be assessed. METHODS: A structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 233 recipients, 140 (60%) responded, but only 123 of these fulfilled the criteria for analysis. A large majority of respondents were clinicians, most of whom devoted at least 25% of their working week to their NHS commitment. There was widespread reliance on textbooks and journals as sources of CME, supplemented by discussions with specialist peers at national and international meetings. Many felt that fulfilling even this agenda was stretching their commitment to the limit, and their greatest need was for protected time in which to learn. There was a desire among 49% of all respondents for the BPS Clinical Section to take some responsibilty for addressing the future needs of its members, and 75% took the view that academic departments should contribute to the development and updating of materials. There was no clear agreement about what these should comprise, but around half of all respondents favoured web-based, journal-based or computer-assisted educational material offering self-assessment opportunities; and CME symposia or workshops at BPS meetings. Almost half (46%) felt that assessment of CME should be integrated with a well-organized appraisal system and the use of portfolios. Six out of 10 respondents were already, or were about to be, regularly appraised at their place of work. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire survey revealed a broad canvas of views and little evidence of consensus except for a general plea for more time in which to learn. The aim of the Clinical Section should be to facilitate and help its members to organize their learning, in a way that is consistent with national trends in Continuing Professional Development. The Clinical Section should co-ordinate the setting up of an electronic library of appropriate published material, compiled by academic and industrial sources, that would guide members seeking up-to-date knowledge of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (BJCP) should commission review articles on recent developments where no suitable published material exists. Academic departments should also be invited to identify or develop self-assessment material that members could use to reinforce their learning, and demonstrate their knowledge to relevant professional bodies. The Clinical Section should organize Symposia and Workshops at which contentious issues in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics can be discussed and resolved. (+info)
Present status of animal clinical pathology examinations in the Japanese Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association.
This paper will review the current status of animal clinical pathology in Japan using data obtained during a survey conducted by the Japanese Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA). I am presenting this information as a representative of the Non-Clinical Evaluation Committee of the JPMA. Two co-workers, Dr. Nomura of Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and Dr. Unno of Kanebo Co., Ltd., are also involved in this effort. Investigating and discussing the various problems concerning animal clinical pathology is timely and truly heartening, and we expect this information exchange in the animal clinical pathology field to continue. (+info)
Society of Apothecaries diploma in sports medicine.
The Society of Apothecaries examination in Sports Medicine consists of four parts: a multiple-choice question paper; a written paper; a clinical section; and an oral section. The candidates must have experience in sports medicine and have to submit a dissertation and a case history book. The importance of an examination in sports medicine is discussed. (+info)
The worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London.
The Society of Apothecaries is both a City livery company and an examining authority for the medical profession. Founded in 1617 by the royal apothecary Gideon de Laune leading a breakaway group from the Grocers' Company, the Society was instrumental in raising the status of apothecaries as general practitioners. Under the Apothecaries' Act (1815) the Society examined for the LSA and it now awards the LMSSA (Licence in Medicine and Surgery of the Society of Apothecaries) and postgraduate diplomas, while maintaining the civic, charitable, and ceremonial traditions of a livery company of the City of London. (+info)
Master of Pharmacy Wilhelm Grining and his pharmaceutical laboratory.
Very little is known about the history of pharmaceutical industry in Latvia, especially about the history of small pharmaceutical enterprises in Riga at the turn of 19-20th centuries. The laboratory of Wilhelm Grining, Master of Pharmacy, (established in 1899) became well known because of its product Liquor Ferri albuminati Grining. The liquor was used for treatment of anemia and became very popular in the whole Russian empire. The owner of the laboratory Wilhelm Grining was a very erudite man and also a good businessman. He was a son of a pharmacist and has been acquainted with apothecary's practice and specificity of the work of the owner of a pharmacy since his childhood. Wilhelm Grining was particularly interested in proteins and started to carry out scientific research both in the fields of chemistry and pharmacy. He participated with his reports in the congresses of Russian Pharmacy Society and published his works in the journal of Russian Pharmacy. Besides all this W. Grining is believed to be the author of the concoction of curative herbs "Trejos devynerios". Biography of W. Grining, as well as the products produced by his pharmaceutical laboratory, was explored using materials from the archive of Latvian State history and 19th century's German literature of pharmaceutical history. (+info)
Collection of medical drug information in pharmacies: Drug Event Monitoring (DEM) in Japan.
To establish a system for collecting and reporting information from community pharmacists such as that on adverse effects, the Japan Pharmaceutical Association (JPA) conducts Drug Event Monitoring (DEM). In the fiscal year 2002, a survey was carried out to clarify the incidence of sleepiness due to antiallergic drugs. The investigated active ingredients were ebastine, fexofenadine hydrochloride, cetirizine hydrochloride, and loratadine. Community pharmacists asked the following question to patients who visited their pharmacies: "Have you ever become sleepy after taking this drug?" During a 4-week survey period, reports of 94256 cases were collected. To evaluate the incidence of sleepiness, we analyzed cases in which reports showed alleged absence of concomitant oral drugs, and drug use in conformity with the dose and method described in package inserts. The incidence of sleepiness was significantly different among the drugs (chi(2)-test, p<0.001). The observed incidences of sleepiness due to the drugs (8.8-20.5%) were higher than those described in each package insert (1.8-6.35%). This may be because an active question was used ("Have you ever become sleepy after taking this drug?"). Active intervention by pharmacists may be useful for collecting more information on improvement in the QOL of patients and safety. In addition, the pharmacists were asked to report events other than "sleepiness" in the free description column of the report. Some symptoms not described in the package inserts were reported, suggesting that DEM may lead to the discovery of new adverse effects. These results suggest that community pharmacists have a good opportunity to collect information in DEM, and safety information such as that on adverse effects can be obtained from pharmacies. (+info)
National guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adult patients: the SWAB guidelines revisited.
Since 1996, the Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (Stichting Werkgroep AntibioticaBeleid, SWAB) has been developing national guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adult patients. As a result of both an inventory of the wishes of the users of these guidelines and the recently developed criteria for evidence-based guideline development, we have revised our format for the development of SWAB guidelines. By involving the members of the relevant professional societies and giving them the opportunity to comment on the guidelines at an early stage, we are aiming for a successful implementation of the guidelines in the hospitals. (+info)
International guidelines for infectious diseases: a practical guide.
A growing number of organisations have become involved in the development of guidelines for infectious diseases (ID). The degree of acceptation of guidelines varies from one country to another. Some of these national differences are determining the practices of prescribing antibiotics, and infection control both in hospitals and in the community. This review provides updated information on ID guideline programmes, in particular on the topic of antimicrobial therapy. It is aimed at clinicians, both in their role as care providers and as designers of local antibiotic guidelines (antibiotic booklets). Definitions are given and the process of development is discussed. International and national ID guideline programmes in the English language are presented. Many URLs provide access to the different websites where most guidelines can be downloaded free of charge. (+info)