Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Nigeria: a review.
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder marked by intermittent, often unpredictable seizures which may be embarrassing and disruptive to the normal activity of daily living. This review was undertaken to provide information / data on the prevalence, seizure types, treatment issues and psychosocial impact of epilepsy in Nigeria. METHOD: We searched the PUBMED database with emphasis on studies conducted in Nigeria using a combination of the following words: epilepsy, seizure, convulsion, prevalence, epidemiology, psychiatric morbidity, social issues, quality of life, cognition, school performance, treatment issues and Nigeria. RESULT: 48 relevant studies that met the criteria were reviewed. The point prevalence of epilepsy varies from 5.3 to 37 per 1000 in Nigeria. Most studies showed a predominance of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Nigerian patients with epilepsy suffer social deprivation and discrimination in education, employment, housing, marital life as well as associated psychiatric morbidity. CONCLUSION: Epilepsy, a stigmatizing disorder in Nigeria, has a significant impact on the day to day functioning of those with the condition. (+info)
Associations of discrimination and violence with smoking among emerging adults: differences by gender and sexual orientation.
Social determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents.
INTRODUCTION: Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. METHODS: A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. RESULTS: There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai'i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. CONCLUSIONS: The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, the determinants of that status, and the requirements of the human right to health. Needed particularly are longitudinal studies which provide data that may link multigenerational trauma and discrimination to poverty and other factors, ultimately producing healthy inequity for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. (+info)
Organizational factors associated with work-related sleep problems in a nationally representative sample of Korean workers.