Children's perceptions of peers with somatic symptoms: the impact of gender, stress, and illness.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how illness characteristics influence children's responses to ill peers. METHODS: A sample of 363 4th and 5th graders responded to a vignette describing a peer with abdominal pain. In a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, conditions varied by (a) evidence for organic disease, (b) presence of stress, (c) sex of vignette character, and (d) sex of respondent. Children rated symptom severity, liking for the peer, and whether the peer should be excused from normal responsibilities. RESULTS: Same sex preferences significantly influenced children's liking for a peer. Children viewed symptoms with an organic etiology as more severe than those without one. Under certain conditions, symptom severity judgments mediated the relation between the presence of organic disease and (a) liking and (b) granting relief from responsibility. The presence of stress had little effect on ratings of symptom severity, liking, or relief from responsibility. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and evidence of organic disease influence children's perceptions of and responses to symptomatic peers. (+info)
Children's attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer presented as obese: does a medical explanation for the obesity make a difference?
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of information on children's attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer presented as obese. METHODS: Children (N = 184) were randomly assigned to observe a video of a boy or girl in one of three conditions: average-weight, obese, obese with medical information explaining the obesity. They rated stereotypical attitudes on the Adjective Checklist and behavioral intentions on the Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ-B). RESULTS: Ratings were generally more favorable for the average-weight than for the obese condition. However, provision of medical information had a positive effect on attitudes toward the obese peer only for younger children and a negative effect on willingness of older children to share academic activities with the peer. Boys and girls showed more positive behavioral intentions toward the same-sex target child regardless of obesity condition. CONCLUSIONS: Information explaining obesity has a minimal positive effect on children's attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer presented as obese. (+info)
Risk factors for alcohol dependence: a case-control study.
Several possible risk factors for ICD-10 alcohol dependence were studied by comparing cases (117 men, 188 women) with controls (248 men, 300 women). Logistic regression analyses showed that parental alcohol problems and high trait anxiety were significantly related to high occurrence of alcohol dependence in both men and women. In women, high antisocial behaviour, high impulsivity, and high externality were also related to high occurrence of alcohol dependence. High facial flushing and high stimulation when intoxicated were related to low occurrence of alcohol dependence in both men and women. In men, this was also the case for high social support. Several interactions were observed. In contrast to earlier studies, there was no significant association between alcohol dependence and left-handedness. (+info)
Identity in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate identify formation among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. Family functioning, perceived emotional support from family and peers, life stress, and anxiety produced by the cancer experience also were examined as they influenced identity development. METHOD: Participants were 52 adolescent survivors and their mothers recruited from a medical center and 42 healthy adolescent counterparts and their mothers recruited from the community. RESULTS: A greater frequency of survivors than their healthy peers was found within the foreclosed identity status. Factors associated with the foreclosed identity status included the cancer diagnosis, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and family functioning characterized by greater levels of conflict. CONCLUSIONS: Data were interpreted to suggest that the foreclosed identity status may serve a protective function in assisting survivors to cope with the stressors of the cancer experience. (+info)
A cross-domain growth analysis: externalizing and internalizing behaviors during 8 years of childhood.
In a sample of 405 children assessed in kindergarten through the seventh grade, we determined the basic developmental trajectories of mother-reported and teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing behaviors using cross-domain latent growth modeling techniques. We also investigated the effects of race, socioeconomic level, gender, and sociometric peer-rejection status in kindergarten on these trajectories. The results indicated that, on average, the development of these behaviors was different depending upon the source of the data. We found evidence of the codevelopment of externalizing and internalizing behaviors within and across reporters. In addition, we found that African-American children had lower levels of externalizing behavior in kindergarten as reported by mothers than did European-American children but they had greater increases in these behaviors when reported by teachers. Children from homes with lower SES levels had higher initial levels of externalizing behaviors and teacher-reported internalizing behaviors. Males showed greater increases in teacher-reported externalizing behavior over time than did the females. Rejected children had trajectories of mother-reported externalizing and internalizing behavior that began at higher levels and either remained stable or increased more rapidly than did the trajectories for non-rejected children which decreased over time. (+info)
Relationship between occlusion and satisfaction with dental appearance in orthodontically treated and untreated groups. A longitudinal study.
The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between occlusion, satisfaction with dental appearance, and self-esteem at the ages of 11 (T1) and 15 years (T2), and to study perceived treatment effects. Separate questionnaires were completed by children and their parents to determine their attitude. The dental casts of 224 children were collected at T1 and T2, and assessed by the Aesthetic Component (AC) and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index. At T2, 16 children had been treated with removable and 51 with fixed appliances, while 157 were untreated. The children in the fixed appliance group had better dental aesthetics (AC) and occlusion (DHC) than those in the two other groups. Average PAR score reduction was 71.6 per cent (T1-T2) and satisfaction with own or child's dental appearance increased significantly. The untreated group showed increased malocclusions. In spite of that, the children expressed higher satisfaction with their own dental appearance at T2 than at T1, while the parents' satisfaction level was unchanged. For the total group, orthodontic concern at T1, AC at T2, and gender accounted for 18.0 per cent of the variation in the children's satisfaction with their own dental appearance. Parents' concern at T1 and AC at T2 accounted for 32.2 per cent of the variation in parents' satisfaction. Improvement in self-esteem from 11 to 15 years was not correlated with treatment changes. A gender difference was found. The answers to the questionnaire indicated that both children and parents rate pleasant aesthetics as an important factor for psychosocial well being. (+info)
Brief report: perceptions of young adolescents about a hypothetical new peer with cancer: an analog study.
OBJECTIVE: To assess attitudes and behavioral intentions (desire to engage a peer in academic, social, and general activities) of young adolescents toward a hypothetical new peer with cancer and to assess the relationship between attitudes and empathy. METHODS: Two hundred fifty middle school students viewed videotapes of a hypothetical peer (i.e., actor) with or without cancer. Participants completed a measure of empathy and a measure of social desirability before viewing the videotape. Participants completed a measure of attitudes and a measure of behavioral intentions after viewing the videotape. RESULTS: Participants gave significantly higher ratings of behavioral intention (e.g., were more accepting) to the peer with cancer than to the healthy peer. Also, participants with high empathy reported more favorable impressions toward the hypothetical new peer than did participants with low or moderate empathy. Female participants had more favorable attitudes and behavioral intentions toward the hypothetical new peer than did male participants. CONCLUSIONS: The social perceptions of young adolescents about peers with cancer may be less negative than previously hypothesized. (+info)
Response bias by neuroblastoma screening participation status and social desirability bias in an anonymous postal survey, Ishikawa, Japan.
OBJECTIVE: To examine response bias by neuroblastoma screening participation status in a population-based postal survey of parents in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. METHODS: The eligibility criteria for the study were: 1) parents whose infants were born in Ishikawa Prefecture between March 1997 and February 1998, and 2) of those parents who resided in the Prefecture in March 1999. Four-page questionnaires were mailed to one-third of screening participants (n = 2,886) and all the nonparticipants (n = 1,401). Questionnaires were anonymous, with no identifiers on the questionnaire. Colored papers were used for printing questionnaires to differentiate screening participation status. Response rates were calculated using demographic information on the infant registry as the denominator and demographic characteristics data from the returned questionnaire as the numerator. RESULTS: The response rate was 63% for participants and 33% for nonparticipants. The following factors were associated with lower response rates regardless of screening participation status: older maternal age (> or = 35 years), higher parity (> or = 4), nuclear family status, and mother having a full-time occupation. Approximately 20% of screening nonparticipants reported having participated in the screening. Place of residence, maternal age, and parity were associated with the percentage of incorrect reporting. CONCLUSION: Screening participation status was a major factor associated with low response rate, although some demographic characteristics were also predictive of low response rates. Incorrect reporting of screening participation among nonparticipants indicates a strong social desirability bias in this official survey in Japan. (+info)