Effect of restrictions on smoking at home, at school, and in public places on teenage smoking: cross sectional study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between extent of restrictions on smoking at home, at school, and in public places and smoking uptake and smoking prevalence among school students. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey with merged records of extent of restrictions on smoking in public places. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: 17 287 high school students. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five point scale of smoking uptake; 30 day smoking prevalence. RESULTS: More restrictive arrangements on smoking at home were associated with a greater likelihood of being in an earlier stage of smoking uptake (P<0.05) and a lower 30 day prevalence (odds ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.91), P<0.001). These findings applied even when parents were smokers. More pervasive restrictions on smoking in public places were associated with a higher probability of being in a earlier stage of smoking uptake (P<0.05) and lower 30 day prevalence (0.91 (0.83 to 0.99), P=0.03). School smoking bans were related to a greater likelihood of being in an earlier stage of smoking uptake (0.89 (0.85 to 0.99), P<0.05) and lower prevalence (0. 86 (0.77 to 0.94), P<0.001) only when the ban was strongly enforced, as measured by instances when teenagers perceived that most or all students obeyed the rule. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that restrictions on smoking at home, more extensive bans on smoking in public places, and enforced bans on smoking at school may reduce teenage smoking. (+info)
Giving means receiving: the protective effect of social capital on binge drinking on college campuses.
OBJECTIVES: We tested whether higher levels of social capital on college campuses protected against individual risks of binge drinking. METHODS: We used a nationally representative survey of 17,592 young people enrolled at 140 4-year colleges. Social capital was operationalized as individuals' average time committed to volunteering in the past month aggregated to the campus level. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses controlling for individual volunteering, sociodemographics, and several college characteristics, individuals from campuses with higher-than-average levels of social capital had a 26% lower individual risk for binge drinking (P < .001) than their peers at other schools. CONCLUSIONS: Social capital may play an important role in preventing binge drinking in the college setting. (+info)
Consumed with worry: 'unsafe' alcohol consumption and self-reported problem drinking in England.
Using data from the 1994 Health Survey for England, logistic multivariate multilevel modelling techniques are used to investigate the simultaneous effect of individual demographic characteristics and socio-structural factors on self-reported problem drinking as revealed by CAGE scores and 'unsafe' levels of alcohol consumption. Whilst the influence of key socio-structural variables is broadly similar for both unsafe alcohol consumption and high CAGE scores, there are notable exceptions when results are examined by tenure group: those in the rented sector are more likely to be problem drinkers as revealed by CAGE, but less likely to consume 'unsafe' amounts of alcohol. Both dimensions of drinking behaviour are influenced by the consumption patterns of others in the household, with both likelihoods increasing as the average consumption of others in the household rises. After taking into account individual compositional variables, the research indicates that there is very little evidence for geographical variation remaining in these two dimensions of drinking behaviour. It is found that the proportion of the population whose drinking behaviour may be classed as (potentially) problematic via the CAGE responses is substantially less than the proportion consuming above recommended 'safe' levels. The research concludes, however, that the two measures are broadly similar in their relationship to social and structural variables. Tenure provides an exception to this conclusion and indicates a continuing need to take account of housing circumstances in developing an understanding of drinking behaviour. (+info)
Increasing worker and community awareness of toxic hazards in the workplace.(4/268)
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Torture and the Medical Profession.
... The main topic of this publication is the involvement of professional medical doctors in the course of torture in, generally speaking, the following ways: 1. Medical scientific knowledge and experience is used in the design of the methods and techniques of torture, for example pharmacological torture; 2. Doctors teach the torturers/perpetrators regarding the practical application of these methods; 3. Doctors actively participate in carrying out torture and in executions in relation to the death penalty; 4. Doctors are present -- "passive" -- during the implementation of torture (in more than sixty per cent of cases) for example monitoring the clinical condition of the victim in order to prevent death; are present when the death sentence is carried out, and then write out death certificates. Many of these are later shown by forensic documentation to be false.... This supplement is based on an international symposium, Torture and the Medical Profession, which was held at the University of Tromso in June 1990.... (+info)
Annual report of Council, 1986-1987: medical ethics.(6/268)
An individually tailored intervention for HIV prevention: baseline data from the EXPLORE Study.
OBJECTIVES: We describe the intervention tested in EXPLORE, an HIV prevention trial aimed at men who have sex with men (MSM), and test the empirical basis of the individually tailored intervention. METHODS: Data on participants' self-efficacy, communication skills, social norms, and enjoyment of unprotected anal intercourse were examined in relation to sexual risk. Combinations of these factors, together with alcohol use and noninjection drug use, were also examined. RESULTS: The individual factors examined were associated with sexual risk behavior. The cohort was shown to be heterogeneous in regard to the presence of combinations of these risk-related factors. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline data from the EXPLORE study support the efficacy of the individually tailored intervention used. (+info)
Self-regulatory behaviours of older drivers.
This study involved a survey of self-regulatory driving practices of 656 drivers aged 55 years and older. Types and prevalence of self-regulatory behaviours were described and several key characteristics of self-regulators were identified. Those who drove less than 100 kilometres per week were more likely to be female, 75+ years, retired, with arthritis, good/fair/poor ratings for decision-making, not the principal driver and not married. Those who avoided specific driving situations were also more likely to be female, 75+ years and not the principal driver. Avoidance was also associated with vision problems, lower confidence in driving situations and crash-involvement. Implications for promotion of safe driving practices are discussed. (+info)