Soccer players under regular training show oxidative stress but an improved plasma antioxidant status.
Physical activity is known to induce oxidative stress in individuals subjected to intense exercise. In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein profile and the plasma antioxidant status in a group of soccer players engaged in a regular training programme. As was expected for aerobic exercise, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL3-C levels were significantly increased in the sportsmen (P<0.05). Total plasma antioxidant capacity was 25% higher in sportsmen than in controls (P<0.005). Accordingly, plasma hydrosoluble antioxidant levels (ascorbic acid and uric acid) were found to be significantly elevated in the soccer players (P<0.005). In addition, these subjects showed high concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in plasma compared with controls (P<0.005). Furthermore, an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in relation to exercise (P<0.01). The elevation in plasma activities of antioxidant enzymes and the higher levels of free radical scavengers of low molecular mass may compensate the oxidative stress caused by physical activity. High levels of high-density lipoprotein in plasma may offer additional protection by inhibiting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus liposoluble antioxidant consumption. Therefore, soccer players under regular training show an improved plasma antioxidant status in comparison to sedentary controls. (+info)
A physiological evaluation of professional soccer players.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological functions of a professional soccer team in the North American Soccer League (NASL). Eighteen players were evaluated on cardiorespiratory function, endurance performance, body composition, blood chemistry, and motor fitness measures near the end of their competitive season. The following means were observed: age, 26 yrs; height, 176 cm; weight 75.5 kg; resting heart rate, 50 beats/min; maximum heart rate (MHR), 188 beats/min; maximum oxygen intake (VO2 max), 58.4 ml/kg-min-1; maximum ventilation (VEmax BTPS), 154 L/min; body fat, 9.59%; 12-min run, 1.86 miles; and Illinois agility run, 15.6 secs. Results on resting blood pressure, serum lipids, vital capacity, flexibility, upper body strength, and vertical jump tests were comparable to values found for the sedentary population. Comparing the results with previously collected data on professional American Football backs indicated that the soccer players were shorter; lighter in body weight; higher in VO2 max (4 ml/kg-min-1) and body fat (1.8%); and similar in MHR, VE max, and VC. The 12-min run scores were similar to the initial values observed for the 1970 Brazilian World Cup Team. The agility run results were superior to data collected from other groups. Their endurance capabilities, agility, and low percent of body fat clearly differentiate them from the sedentary population and show them to be similar to that of professional American football backs. (+info)
Injuries caused by falling soccer goalposts in Denmark.
OBJECTIVE: A falling soccer goalpost is associated with the potential risk of serious injury that can sometimes even be fatal. The aim of the study was to analyse the extent of the problem in Denmark and focus on the mechanism of injury and prevention. METHODS: Data were analysed for the period 1989-1997 from the European Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System, which is an electronic register of the injuries seen in the casualty departments of the hospitals of five selected cities in Denmark representing 14% of the Danish population; in addition, fatal accidents in the whole of Denmark since 1981 were examined. Forty two injured persons were interviewed about the circumstances of the accident. Attempts were made to estimate the proportion of goalposts secured by counterweight in the five different regions, compared with the proportion secured with ground stakes and those that were unsecured, by analysing data from the largest producers of goalposts in Denmark. RESULTS: In the period 1981-1988, two fatal accidents were recorded. In the period 1989-1997, 117 people were injured by a falling goalpost; six of the injuries required hospitalisation. Some 88% of the injured were under the age of 15. In a telephone interview with 42 of the injured, 50% stated that the goalpost fell because someone was hanging on the crossbar. Comparing the five different regions with respect to the proportion of goalposts secured by counterweight and the number of accidents, the following relation was found. Areas in which a high percentage of the goalposts were secured by a counterweight correlated inversely with a high number of accidents (r = -0.9; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Soccer is a widely played sport and it is important to be aware that accidents caused by falling goalposts can occur and that they presumably can be prevented by proper use of goalposts, by using secure goalposts, and by securing old goalposts with a counterweight. (+info)
Dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle and sports activity.
The study objectives were to examine the dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle in athletes, and investigate its association with participation in sport. The study comprised 168 active competitive non-pregnant athletes, aged 14-24 years. The dynamic strength of their quadriceps muscle was measured, and they answered a questionnaire about sports activity and occupation. The dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle was significantly higher in men than in women, and was positively associated with body weight, years of jogging, years of soccer, and weekly hours of basketball. In conclusion, the dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle seems to be associated with sports activity. The results suggest sport specific adaptation, which may reflect high levels of running and jumping activity. (+info)
Medical cover at Scottish football matches: have the recommendations of the Gibson Report been met?
OBJECTIVES: To determine if doctors providing medical care at Scottish football stadiums meet the standards recommended by the Gibson Report. METHODS: A postal questionnaire and telephone follow up of doctors involved with the 40 Scottish League teams. RESULTS: 47% of the doctors had not attended any relevant resuscitation courses and 72% had no training in major incident management. CONCLUSIONS: The recommendations of the Gibson Report with regard to medical cover at football stadiums have not been fully implemented in Scotland. (+info)
Development of muscle strength in relation to training level and testosterone in young male soccer players.
Isometric and functional strength of ninety-eight 11-yr-old male soccer players at an elite (E) and nonelite (NE) level were determined (3-4 times) through a 2-yr period, and the changes were related to growth and maturation. The initial isometric strength for extension with dominant leg [1,502 +/- 35 (E) vs. 1,309 +/- 39 (NE) N], extension with nondominant leg (1,438 +/- 37 vs. 1,267 +/- 45 N), extension with both legs (2,113 +/- 76 vs. 1,915 +/- 72 N), back muscles (487 +/- 11 vs. 414 +/- 10 N), abdominal muscles (320 +/- 9 vs. 294 +/- 8 N), and handgrip (304 +/- 10 vs. 259 +/- 8 N) increased by 15-40% during the period. Broad jump increased (P < 0. 05) by 15 (E) and 10% (NE). The E players had higher (P < 0.05) initial isometric strength and broad jump performance compared with NE players, and differences were maintained throughout the period (multiple ANOVA for repeated measures) also when adjustment was made for age, dimensions, testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor I (generalized estimating equations analyses). The development of strength for both E and NE players together was significantly (P < 0. 001) related to changes in serum testosterone concentrations. The present data indicate that testosterone is important for development of strength in young boys and that, independent of serum testosterone concentration, E players have developed greater muscle strength compared with NE players. (+info)
A pilot study examining injuries in elite gaelic footballers.
OBJECTIVES: To quantify injuries in elite gaelic footballers and to determine the nature, sites, and outcome of injuries and the possible risk factors involved. METHODS: Information on injuries was collected from six elite gaelic football teams by a questionnaire. The footballers were asked to recall injuries over the preceding six month period. RESULTS: A total of 88 out of 107 subjects sustained injuries over the study period. Ninety five injuries were recorded, giving an incidence rate of 1.78 injuries per subject per year, of which 35% were recurring. It was found that 35% of injuries were sustained during training sessions. Lower body injuries predominated (77%), the ankle being the most commonly injured anatomic site. Most injuries were soft tissue in nature: muscle, 33%; ligament, 32%; tendon, 16%. The most common situations giving rise to injuries were collision (22%) and twist/turn (19%). Foul play only accounted for about 6% of injuries. Mean time off play as a result of injury was 17.3 days, and hospital admission was necessary for 15% of the injuries. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations of a retrospective of this nature, the study provides useful and important information on injuries in gaelic footballers. (+info)
Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.
In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players. (+info)