Craniofacial modifications in children with habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: a case-control study.
Habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea in children, which are frequently associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, may begin early in life and in relation with orocraniofacial features. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of early bone craniofacial modifications in young children with a long history of habitual snoring. Twenty-six habitually snoring children (mean age 4.6 yrs) were studied by nocturnal portable recording or diurnal polysomnography, cephalometry and orthodontic evaluation. A comparison of cephalometric findings was made between the studied group and 26 age-matched children (mean age 5.1 yrs) with no history of snoring or respiratory problems during sleep. The cephalometric analyses showed a significant increase in craniomandibular intermaxillar, lower and upper goniac angles with a retroposition and posterior rotation of the mandible (high angle face) and a reduction in the rhinopharynx space caused by higher thickness of adenoids in habitually snoring children compared with controls. Cross-bites and labial incompetence as well as daytime symptoms and familiarity for habitual snoring were found in most of the studied group of snorers compared with controls. The results indicate that upper airway obstruction during sleep is associated with mild but significant cephalometric and craniofacial modifications in children complaining of habitual snoring. Whether this skeletal conformation is genetically determined or influenced by the early onset of habitual snoring remains to be assessed. (+info)
Oral appliances for the management of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea.
BACKGROUND: Although oral appliances are effective in some patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), they are not universally effective. A novel anterior mandibular positioner (AMP) has been developed with an adjustable hinge that allows progressive advancement of the mandible. The objective of this prospective crossover study was to compare efficacy, side effects, patient compliance, and preference between AMP and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate OSA. METHODS: Twenty four patients of mean (SD) age 44.0 (10.6) years were recruited with a mean (SD) body mass index of 32.0 (8.2) kg/m2, Epworth sleepiness score 10.7 (3.4), and apnoea/hypopnoea index 26.8 (11.9)/hour. There was a two week wash-in and a two week wash-out period and two treatment periods (AMP and nCPAP) each of four months. Efficacy, side effects, compliance, and preference were evaluated by a questionnaire and home sleep monitoring. RESULTS: One patient dropped out early in the study and three refused to cross over so treatment results are presented on the remaining 20 patients. The apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) was lower with nasal CPAP 4.2 (2.2)/hour than with the AMP 13.6 (14.5)/hour (p < 0.01). Eleven of the 20 patients (55%) who used the AMP were treatment successes (reduction of AHI to < 10/hour and relief of symptoms), one (5%) was a compliance failure (unable or unwilling to use the treatment), and eight (40%) were treatment failures (failure to reduce AHI to < 10/hour and/or failure to relieve symptoms). Fourteen of the 20 patients (70%) who used nCPAP were treatment successes, six (30%) were compliance failures, and there were no treatment failures. There was greater patient satisfaction with the AMP (p < 0.01) than with nCPAP but no difference in reported side effects or compliance. CONCLUSIONS: AMP is an effective treatment in some patients with mild to moderate OSA and is associated with greater patient satisfaction than nCPAP. (+info)
Influence of gas density on simulated snoring.
According to a recent theoretical model, snoring is related to instability of the upper airway (UA). Factors promoting UA instability include increased gas density. The aim of this study was to test the influence of gas density on simulated snoring production and supraglottic resistance. Supraglottic pressure and flow rate (V') were measured in 10 healthy seated subjects during simulated snoring. Subjects breathed three different gas mixtures: Helium-oxygen, He 79%-O2 21% (He-O2); air; and sulphur hexafluoride-oxygen, F6S 79%-O2 21% (F6S-O2) administered in a random order. Supraglottic resistance (Rsg) was measured on its linear range during quiet breathing and V' was measured at the onset and middle of snoring. Linear Rsg increased and V' conversely decreased with gas density. These data are in agreement with predictions of a mathematical model of the upper airway showing that snoring occurs at lower flow rates when gas density is increased. (+info)
Neuromechanical interaction in human snoring and upper airway obstruction.
The fact that snoring and obstructive apnea only occur during sleep means that effective neuromuscular functioning of the upper airway during sleep is vital for the maintenance of unimpeded breathing. Recent clinical studies in humans have obtained evidence demonstrating that upper airway neural receptors sense the negative pressure generated by inspiration and "trigger," with a certain delay, reflex muscle activation to sustain the airway that might otherwise collapse. These findings have enabled us to propose a model in which the mechanics is coupled to the neuromuscular physiology through the generation of reflex wall stiffening proportional to the retarded fluid pressure. Preliminary results on this model exhibit three kinds of behavior typical of unimpeded breathing, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. We suggest that the increased latency of the reflex muscle activation in sleep, together with the reduced strength of the reflex, have important clinical consequences. (+info)
Prevalence of sleep/wake disorders in persons with blindness.
Blind individuals are not only handicapped by their loss of vision, but are also affected because the loss of sight may have a secondary impact on functioning of their biological clock. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of visual loss on sleep/wake disorders. A prospective 48-item questionnaire survey was distributed to blind individuals through the French Association Valentin Hauy, which serves blind persons. A control group matched by age, sex, geographical location and professional activity/non-activity was obtained from a panel of 20000 households representative of the French population, and this group also completed the questionnaire. From a potential blind population of 1500 subjects, 1073 questionnaires (71.5%) were completed and usable for analysis, and from a potential 1000 control subjects, 794 (79. 4%) of the questionnaires were returned and analysed. Criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th revision, and the International Classification of Sleep/Wake Disorders (1990) were used to determine pathology. Individuals determined to be 'totally blind' and 'almost blind' (i.e. with less than 10% vision left in only one eye) presented a significantly higher occurrence of sleep/wake disorders than controls. Nocturnal sleep disruption, daytime somnolence, and (to a lesser degree) a 'free-running' condition are significantly more common in blind individuals. There is an increased use of sleeping pills, and a higher incidence of inappropriate involuntary daily naps. In conclusion, individuals with blindness report a significant curtailment of total sleep time and hence resulting daytime somnolence, which impacts on daytime activities. A 'free-running' condition is also a common sleep/wake impairment that may compound the handicap of blindness. (+info)
Clinical value and cost of a respiratory sleep-related breathing disorders screening service for snorers referred to a District General Hospital ENT department.
Sleep-related breathing disorders and snoring often co-exist in the community. We hypothesized that a significant proportion of patients referred from primary care to ENT surgeons for management of snoring might have significant sleep-related breathing disorders requiring medical management. The Respiratory Medicine Department at Whipps Cross Hospital, London, U.K. screened all such referrals using sleep questionnaires, overnight oximetry and diagnostic sleep studies where necessary as recommended by the Royal College of Physicians of London. Over 38 months, 115 patients were screened, of whom 43 (38%) had clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing. One-third were established on nasal continuous positive airway pressure ventilation and the remainder were mainly offered conservative treatment. The cost of the screening service is estimated at 14,000 Pounds for the initial year. The savings to the ENT service and the possible long-term benefits to the patients identified as having sleep-disordered breathing balance this. We conclude that screening all referred snorers for sleep-disordered breathing using a simple protocol identifies a significant number requiring medical management at a relatively low cost to the service provider. (+info)
Effect of negative expiratory pressure on respiratory system flow resistance in awake snorers and nonsnorers.
In spontaneously breathing subjects, intrathoracic expiratory flow limitation can be detected by applying a negative expiratory pressure (NEP) at the mouth during tidal expiration. To assess whether NEP might increase upper airway resistance per se, the interrupter resistance of the respiratory system (Rint,rs) was computed with and without NEP by using the flow interruption technique in 12 awake healthy subjects, 6 nonsnorers (NS), and 6 nonapneic snorers (S). Expiratory flow (V) and Rint,rs were measured under control conditions with V increased voluntarily and during random application of brief (0.2-s) NEP pulses from -1 to -7 cmH(2)O, in both the seated and supine position. In NS, Rint,rs with spontaneous increase in V and with NEP was similar [3.10 +/- 0.19 and 3.30 +/- 0.18 cmH(2)O x l(-1) x s at spontaneous V of 1.0 +/- 0.01 l/s and at V of 1.1 +/- 0.07 l/s with NEP (-5 cmH(2)O), respectively]. In S, a marked increase in Rint,rs was found at all levels of NEP (P < 0.05). Rint,rs was 3.50 +/- 0.44 and 8.97 +/- 3.16 cmH(2)O x l(-1) x s at spontaneous V of 0.81 +/- 0.02 l/s and at V of 0.80 +/- 0.17 l/s with NEP (-5 cmH(2)O), respectively (P < 0.05). With NEP, Rint,rs was markedly higher in S than in NS both seated (F = 8.77; P < 0.01) and supine (F = 9.43; P < 0.01). In S, V increased much less with NEP than in NS and was sometimes lower than without NEP, especially in the supine position. This study indicates that during wakefulness nonapneic S have more collapsible upper airways than do NS, as reflected by the marked increase in Rint,rs with NEP. The latter leads occasionally to an actual decrease in V such as to invalidate the NEP method for detection of intrathoracic expiratory flow limitation. (+info)
Hypersomnia following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for snoring.
This report describes three cases who underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe snoring and who subsequently developed progressive excessive daytime sleepiness. All three cases were shown to have sleep fragmentation as a result of non-apnoeic episodic upper airway narrowing. These cases raise the possibility that increased upper airway resistance during sleep may be exacerbated or even caused by uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Ideally, sleep-disordered breathing should be carefully excluded before this surgery is offered as treatment for severe snoring. (+info)