Identification of the enzyme required for activation of the small ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1.
The ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1 is conjugated to a variety of proteins including Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1), IkappaBalpha, and PML. SUMO-1-modified proteins display altered subcellular targeting and/or stability. We have purified the SUMO-1-activating enzyme from human cells and shown that it contains two subunits of 38 and 72 kDa. Isolation of cDNAs for each subunit indicates that they are homologous to ubiquitin-activating enzymes and to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzymes responsible for conjugation of Smt3p and Rub-1p. In vitro, recombinant SAE1/SAE2 (SUMO-1-activating enzyme) was capable of catalyzing the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester linkage between SUMO-1 and SAE2. The addition of the SUMO-1-conjugating enzyme Ubch9 resulted in efficient transfer of the thioester-linked SUMO-1 from SAE2 to Ubch9. In the presence of SAE1/SAE2, Ubch9, and ATP, SUMO-1 was efficiently conjugated to the protein substrate IkappaBalpha. As SAE1/SAE2, Ubch9, SUMO-1, and IkappaBalpha are all homogeneous, recombinant proteins, it appears that SUMO-1 conjugation of IkappaBalpha in vitro does not require the equivalent of an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase activity. (+info)
Characterization of a fission yeast SUMO-1 homologue, pmt3p, required for multiple nuclear events, including the control of telomere length and chromosome segregation.
Unlike ubiquitin, the ubiquitin-like protein modifier SUMO-1 and its budding yeast homologue Smt3p have been shown to be more important for posttranslational protein modification than for protein degradation. Here we describe the identification of the SUMO-1 homologue of fission yeast, which we show to be required for a number of nuclear events including the control of telomere length and chromosome segregation. A disruption of the pmt3(+) gene, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of SMT3, was not lethal, but mutant cells carrying the disrupted gene grew more slowly. The pmt3Delta cells showed various phenotypes such as aberrant mitosis, sensitivity to various reagents, and high-frequency loss of minichromosomes. Interestingly, we found that pmt3(+) is required for telomere length maintenance. Loss of Pmt3p function caused a striking increase in telomere length. When Pmt3p synthesis was restored, the telomeres became gradually shorter. This is the first demonstration of involvement of one of the Smt3p/SUMO-1 family proteins in telomere length maintenance. Fusion of Pmt3p to green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed that Pmt3p was predominantly localized as intense spots in the nucleus. One of the spots was shown to correspond to the spindle pole body (SPB). During prometaphase- and metaphase, the bright GFP signals at the SPB disappeared. These observations suggest that Pmt3p is required for kinetochore and/or SPB functions involved in chromosome segregation. The multiple functions of Pmt3p described here suggest that several nuclear proteins are regulated by Pmt3p conjugation. (+info)
Covalent modification of the transcriptional repressor tramtrack by the ubiquitin-related protein Smt3 in Drosophila flies.
The ubiquitin-related SUMO-1 modifier can be covalently attached to a variety of proteins. To date, four substrates have been characterized in mammalian cells: RanGAP1, IkappaBalpha, and the two nuclear body-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. SUMO-1 modification has been shown to be involved in protein localization and/or stabilization and to require the activity of specialized E1-activating and E2 Ubc9-conjugating enzymes. SUMO-1 homologues have been identified in various species and belong to the so-called Smt3 family of proteins. Here we have characterized the Drosophila homologues of mammalian SUMO-1 and Ubc9 (termed dSmt3 and dUbc9, respectively). We show that dUbc9 is the conjugating enzyme for dSmt3 and that dSmt3 can covalently modify a number of proteins in Drosophila cells in addition to the human PML substrate. The dSmt3 transcript and protein are maternally deposited in embryos, where the protein accumulates predominantly in nuclei. Similar to its human counterpart, dSmt3 protein is observed in a punctate nuclear pattern. We demonstrate that Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69), a repressor of neuronal differentiation, is a bona fide in vivo substrate for dSmt3 conjugation. Finally, we show that both the modified and unmodified forms of Ttk69 can bind to a Ttk69 binding site in vitro. Moreover, dSmt3 and Ttk69 proteins colocalize on polytene chromosomes, indicating that the dSmt3-conjugated Ttk69 species can bind at sites of Ttk69 action in vivo. Altogether, these data indicate a high conservation of the Smt3 conjugation pathway and further suggest that this mechanism may play a role in the transcriptional regulation of cell differentiation in Drosophila flies. (+info)
Covalent modification of the transactivator protein IE2-p86 of human cytomegalovirus by conjugation to the ubiquitin-homologous proteins SUMO-1 and hSMT3b.
The 86-kDa IE2 protein (IE2-p86) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a potent transactivator of viral as well as cellular promoters. Several lines of evidence indicate that this broad transactivation spectrum is mediated by protein-protein interactions. To identify novel cellular binding partners, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using a N-terminal deletion mutant of IE2-p86 comprising amino acids 135 to 579 as a bait. Here, we report the isolation of two ubiquitin-homologous proteins, SUMO-1 and hSMT3b, as well as their conjugating activity hUBC9 (human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9) as specific interaction partners of HCMV IE2. The polypeptides SUMO-1 and hSMT3b have previously been shown to be covalently coupled to a subset of nuclear proteins such as the nuclear domain 10 (ND10) proteins PML and Sp100 in a manner analogous to ubiquitinylation, which we call SUMOylation. By Western blot analysis, we were able to show that the IE2-p86 protein can be partially converted to a 105-kDa isoform in a dose-dependent manner after cotransfection of an epitope-tagged SUMO-1. Immunoprecipitation experiments of the conjugated isoforms using denaturing conditions further confirmed the covalent coupling of SUMO-1 or hSMT3b to IE2-p86 both after transient transfection and after lytic infection of human primary fibroblasts. Moreover, we defined two modification sites within IE2, located in an immediate vicinity at amino acid positions 175 and 180, which appear to be used alternatively for coupling. By using a SUMOylation-defective mutant, we showed that the targeting of IE2-p86 to ND10 occurs independent of this modification. However, a strong reduction of IE2-mediated transactivation of two viral early promoters and a heterologous promoter was observed in cotransfection analysis with the SUMOylation-defective mutant. This suggests a functional relevance of covalent modification by ubiquitin-homologous proteins for IE2-mediated transactivation, possibly by providing an additional interaction motif for cellular cofactors. (+info)
Functional heterogeneity of small ubiquitin-related protein modifiers SUMO-1 versus SUMO-2/3.
Post-translational modification marked by the covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1/SMT3C has been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes. Recently, two cDNAs encoding proteins related to SUMO-1 have been identified in human and mouse. The functions and regulation of these proteins, known as SUMO-2/SMT3A and SUMO-3/SMT3B, remain largely uncharacterized. We describe herein quantitative and qualitative distinctions between SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 in vertebrate cells. Much of this was accomplished through the application of an antibody that recognizes SUMO-2 and -3, but not SUMO-1. This antibody detected multiple SUMO-2/3-modified proteins and revealed that, together, SUMO-2 and -3 constitute a greater percentage of total cellular protein modification than does SUMO-1. Intriguingly, we found that there was a large pool of free, non-conjugated SUMO-2/3 and that the conjugation of SUMO-2/3 to high molecular mass proteins was induced when the cells were subjected to protein-damaging stimuli such as acute temperature fluctuation. In addition, we demonstrated that SUMO-2/3 conjugated poorly, if at all, to a major SUMO-1 substrate, the Ran GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1. Together, these results support the concept of important distinctions between the SUMO-2/3 and SUMO-1 conjugation pathways and suggest a role for SUMO-2/3 in the cellular responses to environmental stress. (+info)
The yeast ULP2 (SMT4) gene encodes a novel protease specific for the ubiquitin-like Smt3 protein.
Yeast Smt3 and its vertebrate homolog SUMO-1 are ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) that are reversibly ligated to other proteins. Like SMT3, SMT4 was first isolated as a high-copy-number suppressor of a defective centromere-binding protein. We show here that SMT4 encodes an Smt3-deconjugating enzyme, Ulp2. In cells lacking Ulp2, specific Smt3-protein conjugates accumulate, and the conjugate pattern is distinct from that observed in a ulp1(ts) strain, which is defective for a distantly related Smt3-specific protease, Ulp1. The ulp2Delta mutant exhibits a pleiotropic phenotype that includes temperature-sensitive growth, abnormal cell morphology, decreased plasmid and chromosome stability, and a severe sporulation defect. The mutant is also hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, hydroxyurea, and benomyl. Although cell cycle checkpoint arrest in response to DNA damage, replication inhibition, or spindle defects occurs with normal kinetics, recovery from arrest is impaired. Surprisingly, either introduction of a ulp1(ts) mutation or overproduction of catalytically inactive Ulp1 can substantially overcome the ulp2Delta defects. Inactivation of Ulp2 also suppresses several ulp1(ts) defects, and the double mutant accumulates far fewer Smt3-protein conjugates than either single mutant. Our data suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism that limits Smt3-protein ligation when Smt3 deconjugation by both Ulp1 and Ulp2 is compromised, allowing a partial recovery of cell function. (+info)
SUMO-1 conjugation to topoisomerase I: A possible repair response to topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage.
Ubiquitin/26S proteasome-dependent degradation of topoisomerase I (TOP1) has been suggested to be a unique repair response to TOP1-mediated DNA damage. In the current study, we show that treatment of mammalian cells or yeast cells expressing human DNA TOP1 with camptothecin (CPT) induces covalent modification of the TOP1 by SUMO-1/Smt3p, a ubiquitin-like protein. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Mammalian DNA TOP1 conjugates induced by CPT were cross-reactive with SUMO-1/Smt3p-specific antibodies both in yeast expressing human DNA TOP1 as well as mammalian cells. (ii) The formation of TOP1 conjugates was shown to be dependent on UBC9, the E2 enzyme for SUMO-1/Smt3p. (iii) TOP1 physically interacts with UBC9. (iv) Ubc9 mutant yeast cells expressing human DNA TOP1 was hypersensitive to CPT, suggesting that UBC9/SUMO-1 may be involved in the repair of TOP1-mediated DNA damage. (+info)
Ulp1-SUMO crystal structure and genetic analysis reveal conserved interactions and a regulatory element essential for cell growth in yeast.
Modification of cellular proteins by the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO is essential for nuclear processes and cell cycle progression in yeast. The Ulp1 protease catalyzes two essential functions in the SUMO pathway: (1) processing of full-length SUMO to its mature form and (2) deconjugation of SUMO from targeted proteins. Selective reduction of the proteolytic reaction produced a covalent thiohemiacetal transition state complex between a Ulp1 C-terminal fragment and its cellular substrate Smt3, the yeast SUMO homolog. The Ulp1-Smt3 crystal structure and functional testing of elements within the conserved interface elucidate determinants of SUMO recognition, processing, and deconjugation. Genetic analysis guided by the structure further reveals a regulatory element N-terminal to the proteolytic domain that is required for cell growth in yeast. (+info)